Flow Characterization Dilution in Surface Discharge of Negatively Buoyant Flow in Stagnant and Non-Stratified Water Bodies

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student of Water and Environment, School of Civil Eng., Iran University of Science and Tech., Tehran

2 Assoc. Prof. of Water and Environment, School of Civil Eng., Iran University of Science and Tech., Tehran

3 Assoc. Prof. of Environment, Dept. of Environmen, Tehran University, Tehran

4 B.S. Student of Civil Eng., School of Civil Eng., Iran University of Science and Tech., Tehran


In this study the results of the experiments conducted in surface discharge of negatively buoyant flows in stagnant and non-stratified body are presented. Geometrical behavior of flow have been studied by simulating of discharged in a dark room and digital possessing of the photos. To determine the mixing behavior of flow the data obtained from 20 conductivity probes located along the trajectory of flow were utilized. Flow concentration profiles, flow self similar trajectory, variation in flow width and changes in flow dilution are the flow characteristics that were studied here. Regarding flow self similar properties the non dimensional behavior of flow will show similar behavior for different conditions of discharge. To have a comparative scale the experimental results were compared with the behavior that formerly reported for submerge horizontal discharges of positively buoyant flows. The analysis of flow behavior in these two discharges showed that despite the fact the flow general behavior is similar, geometric and mixing characteristics of flow in surface discharges are different from the those observed in submerge discharges. In surface discharges flow protrudes more in comparison to submerge discharges. The changes of flow width and dilution were also different from the one reported for submerge discharges.


Abessi, O., and Saeedi, M. (2009). Wastewater discharge into the seas. J. of Water and Envionmental. 73, 34-41 Ahmed, M., Shayya, W. H., Hoey, D., and Al-Handaly, J. (2001). Brine disposal from reverse osmosis desalination plants in Oman and the United Arab Emirates. J. Desalination.. 133, 135-147 Roberts, P.J.W., Ferrier, A., and Daviero, G. (1997). Mixing in inclined dense jet. J. Hydraulic Engineering. 123 (8), 693-699 Jones, G., Nash, D., Doneker, L., and Jirka, H. (2007). Buoyant surface discharge into water bodies. I: Flow classification and prediction methodology. J. Hydraulic Engineering. 133 (9), 1010-1020 Zhang, H., and Baddour, E. (1998). Maximum penetration of vertical round dense jets at small and large froud numbers. J. Hydraulic Engineering. 124 (5), 550-553 Cipollina, A., Brucato, A., Grisafi, F., and Nicosia, S. (2005). Bench-scale investigation of inclined dense jets. J. Hydraulic Engineering. 131 (11), 1017-1022 Kikkert, G., Davidson, J., and Noles, I. (2007). Inclined negatively buoyant ischrges. J. Hydraulic Engineering. 133 (5), 545-554 Bleninger, T., and Jirka G. H. (2008). Modeling and environmentally sound management of brine discharge from desalination plants. J. Desalination. 221, 585-597 Hayashi, T., and Shuto, N. (1967). Diffusion of warm water jets discharged horizontally at water surface. Proc. of the 12 Conf. of the Intern'l. Assoc. for Hyd. Res., Fort Collins, Colorado. , 47-59 Stolzenbach, K.D., and Harleman, D.R.F. (1971). An analytical and experimental investigation of surface discharges of heated water. Technical Rep. No. 135, R. M. Parsons Lab for Water Resources and Hydrodynamics Massachusetts, USA. Chu, V. H., and Goldberg, M.B. (1974). Buoyant forced plumes in cross flow. J. Hydraulics Division. 122 (1), 27-34 Adams, E.E., Stolzenbach, K.D., and Harleman, D.R.F. (1975). Near and far field analysis of buoyant surface discharges into large bodies of water. Technica Report 201, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Dunn, W. E., Policastro, A. J., and Paddock, R. A. (1975). Surface thermal plumes: Evaluation of mathematical models for the near and complete field. Argonne National Laboratory Report ANL/WR-75-3-Part One, USA. Wiuff, R. (1978). Experiments on surface buoyant jet. J. Hydraulic Division. 104 (5), 667-679 Jirka, G.H., Adams, E.E., and Stolzenbach, K.D. (1981). Buoyant surface jets. J. Hydraulic Division. 107 (11), 1467-1487 Chu, V. H., and Jirka, G. H. (1986). Surface buoyant jets. Encyclopedia of fluid mechanics, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. Jones, R.G., Nash, D. J., and Jirka, H.G. (1996). CORMIX3: An experimental system for mixing zone analysis and prediction of buoyant surface discharges. User Manual, Office of Science and Technology, Environmental protection Agency, Washington. D.C.. Alavian, V. (1986). Behavior of density currents on an incline. J. of Hydraulic Engineering. 112 (1), 27-42 Hauenstein, W., and Dracos, T. (1983). Investigation of plunging density currents generated by inflows in lakes. J. Hydraulic Research. 22 (3), 157-179 Kassem, A., Jasim, I., and Jamil, A.K. (2003). Three-Dimensional modeling of negatively buoyant flow in diverging channels. J. Hydraulic Engineering. 129 (12), 936-947 Abdelwahed, M. S. T., and Chu, V. H. (1981). Surface Jets and surface plumes in cross-flows. Technical Report No. 81-1, Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, McGill University, Montreal. Jen, Y., Wiegel, R. L., and Mobarek, I. (1966). Surface discharges of horizontal warm water jets. J. Power Div.. 92 (2), 1-29 Jirka, G., Adams, E., and Stolzenbach, K. (1981). Properties of surface buoyant jets. J. of Hydraulics Division. 106, 1467-1487 Nash, J. D., and Jirka, G. H. (1996). Buoyant surface discharges into unsteady ambient flows. J. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans. 24 (1-4), 75-84 Fischer, B., List, J.E., Imberger, J., and Brooks, H. N. (1974). Mixing in inland and coastal waters. Acadmce Press, INC.San Diego, California. Roberts, J.W., and Wright, S.J. (1981). Vertical round buoyant jet in shallow water. J. Hydraulic Engineering. 72, 490-496 Pincince, A. B., and List, E. J. (1973). Disposal of brine into an estuary. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed.. 45, 2335-2344 Wright, S. J. (1997). Effects of ambient cross flow and density stratification on the characteristic behavior of round turbulent buoyant jets. Report No. KH-R-36, W.M. Keck Lab. of Hydr. and Water Resour., California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, California. Lee, J.H.W., and Chu, V.H. (2003). Turbulent jets and plumes a lagrangian approach. Kluweer Academic Publishers, Boston. Shao, O., and Law A.W.K. (2010). Mixingandboundaryinteractionsof 30◦ and 45◦ inclined Dense jets. Environmental Fluid Mechanics. 10, 521-553 Fan, L. N. (1967). Turbulent buoyant jets into stratified or flowing ambient fluids. KH-R- 15, W. M. Keck Laboratory of Hydraulic and Water Resources, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California. Davidson, M.J., and Pun, K.L. (2000). Weakly advected jets in cross-flow. J. Hydraulic Engineering. 125 (1), 47-58 Hansen, J., and Schroder, H. (1968). Horizontal jet dilution studies by use of radioactive isotopes. Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica, Civil Engineering and Building Construction Series Ci 49, 24, USA. Jirka, G.H. (2004). Integral model for turbulent buoyant Jets in unbounded stratified flows part 1: Single round Jet. J. Environmental Fluid Mechanics. 4, 1-56 Liseth, P. (1970). Mixing of merging buoyant jets from a manifold in stagnant receiving water of uniform density. Rep. No. HEL 23-1, Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif. Xiao, J., Travis, J.R., and Breitung, W. (2009). Non-Boussinesq integral model for horizontal turbulent buoyant round Jets. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations. 3, 225-232