Investigating the Efficiency of Functionalized PAMAM-GO Nano-Composite for Nitrate Removal from Aqua Solutions

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assist. prof., Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University (SBU), Tehran, Iran

2 Post-doctoral Reseaercher, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University (SBU), Tehran, Iran

3 Assist. prof., Department of Resin and Addetives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


Due to the high solubility of nitrate in water, conventional treatment methods fail to remove it. This research investigated for the first time in national and global level, the efficiency of functionalized PAMAM-Go nanocomposite for nitrate removal from aquatic solutions. GO was synthesized by modified Hummers method. AFM images were used to characterize the GO and the AGO. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor and the main factors of pH, reaction time, and concentration of PAMAM_GO were investigated. The highest removal efficiency was obtained as 84% at 5 mL/L functionalized PAMAM_GO, pH of 3 and 25 min reaction time. The results showed that nitrate removal by functionalized PAMAM-Go nanocomposite is directly correlated with nanocomposite concentration and contact time while it is inversely correlated with pH and initial concentration of nitrate. It seems that ion exchange between nitrate and chloride is the main mechanism of nitrate removal by functionalized PAMAM_GO nano composite according to functionalization of PAMAM-Go using hydrochloric acid. This method can be used as a suitable method for in situ treatment of nitrate and many  pollutants in water and wastewater, due to its easy operation, no need for high levels of expertise and sophisticated equipment, no need for large space of construction, low initial investment, low price, availability of raw materials, simple synthesis of graphene oxide and  easy  to functionalize.


Main Subjects

Ahn, S. C., Oh, S.-Y. & Cha, D. K., 2008, "Enhanced reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron at elevated temperatures", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 156, 17-22.
Archna, K., S., Sharma & Sobti, R. C., 2012, "Nitrate removal from groundwater: A review", Journal of Chemistry, 9, 1667-1675.
Bryan, N., Nathan, S. & Loscalzo, J. 2011, Nitrite and nitrate in human health and disease, Springer, Humana Press, N.Y.
Cho, D. W., Chon, C. M., Kim, Y., Jeon, B. H., Schwartz, F. W., Lee, E. S. & Song, H., 2011, "Adsorption of nitrate and Cr(VI) by cationic polymer-modified granular activated carbon", Chemical Engineering Journal, 175, 298-305.
Eroglu, E., Haniff Wahid, M., Chen, X., Smith, S. M. & Raston, C. L., 2013a, "Removal of nitrate from liquid effluents with bio-nano hybrid materials", Geophysical Research, 15, 7-12.
Eroglu, E., Zang, W., Eggers, P. K., Chen, X., Boulos, R. A., Wahid, M. H. & Smith, S. M. & Raston, C. L., 2013b, "Nitrate uptake by p-phosphonic acid calix[8]arene stabilized graphene", Chemical Communications, 49, 8172-8174.
Esfand, R. & Tomalia, D. A., 2001, "Laboratory synthesis of poly amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers", In: Fre´chet, J. M. & Tomalia, D. A. (Eds.) Dendrimers and other dendritic polymers, University of Michigan, Center for Biologic Nanotechnology, Ann Arbor, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., MI, USA.
Eslami, A., Yazdabakhsh, A. R., Daraee, H. & Karimi, F. S., 2015, "Removal of 4-Chlorophenol from aqueous solutions using graphene oxide nanoporous adsorbent", Journal of Water and Wastewater, 26 (1), 19-26. (In Persian)
Fallahi, F., Ayati, B. & Ganjidoust, H., 2012, "Lab scale study of nitrate removal by phytoremediation", Journal of Water and Wastewater, 23(1), 57-65. (In Persian)
Gao, Y., Li, Y., Zhang, L., Huang, H., Hua, J., Shah, S. M. & Su, X., 2012, "Adsorption and removal of tetracycline antibiotics from aqueous solution by graphene oxide", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 368, 540-546.
Geim, A. K., 2009, "Graphene:Status and prospects", Science, 324, 1530-1534.
Gupta, S. S., Sreeprasad, T. S., Maliyekkal, S. M., Das, S. K. & Pradeep, T., 2012, "Graphene from sugar and its application in water purification", ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 4, 4156-4163.
Hamesadeghi, U., Najafi, F., Daraei, H., Ghahremani, E., Rahmani, R., Gharibi, F. & Maleki, A., 2014, "Removal of acid black 1 dye by carbon nanotube-dendrimer composite: Operation parameters, isotherms and kinetic", Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, 19, 141-152. (In Persian)
Hayati, B., Mahmoodi, N. & Maleki, A., 2013, "Dendrimer-titania nanocomposite: Synthesis and dye-removal capacity", Research on Chemical Intermediates, 41 (6), 3743-3754.
Hu, X.-J., Liu, Y.-G., Wang, H., Chen, A.-W., Zeng, G.-M., Liu, S.-M., et al., 2013, "Removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution using sulfonated magnetic graphene oxide composite", Separation and Purification Technology, 108, 189-195.
Ilaiyaraja, P., Singha Deb, A. K., Ponraju, D. & Venkatraman, B., 2014, "Removal of cobalt from aqueous solution using xanthate functionalized dendrimer", Desalination and Water Treatment, 52 (1-3), 1-8.
Jinamoni, S. & Goswami Archana, S., 2011, "Study of the removal of toxic anions from contaminanted water utilizing natural kaolinite clay of Assam", International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, 2, 92-96.
Kim, J. & Benjamin, M. M., 2004, "Modeling a novel ion exchange process for arsenic and nitrate removal", Water Research, 38, 2053-2062.
Liu, W., 2005, "Catalyst technology development from macro-micro-down to nano-scale", China Particuology, 3, 383-394.
Mahamudur, I., 2008, "Development of adsorption media for removal of lead and nitrate from water", PhD Thesis in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, India.
Malinga, S. P., Arotiba, O. A., Krause, R. W. M., Mapolie, S. F., Diallo, M. S. & Mamba, B. B., 2013, "Cyclodextrin-dendrimer functionalized polysulfone membrane for the removal of humic acid in water", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 130 (b), 4428-4439.
Motamedi, E., Atouei, M. T. & Kassaee, M. Z., 2014, "Comparison of nitrate removal from water via graphene oxide coated Fe, Ni and Co nanoparticles", Materials Research Bulletin, 54, 34-40.
Nabid, M. R., Sedghi, R., Sharifi, R., Oskooie, H. A. & Heravi, M. M., 2013, "Removal of toxic nitrate ions from drinking water using conducting polymer/MWCNTs nanocomposite", Iranian Polymer Journal, 22, 85-92.
Polshettiwar, V. & Varma, R. S., 2010, "Green chemistry by nano-catalysis", Green Chem., 12, 743-754.
Rand, M. C., Greenberg, A. E. & Taras, M. J., 2004, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, American Public Health Association, USA.
Rao, C. N., SOOD, R., Subrahmanyam, A. K. & Govindaraj, A., 2009, "Graphene: The new two-dimensional nanomaterial", Angewandte Chemie, International Edition, 48, 7752-7777.
Sadeghi-Kiakhani, M., Arami, M. & Gharanjig, K., 2013, "Dye removal from colored-textile wastewater using chitosan-PPI dendrimer hybrid as a biopolymer: Optimization, kinetic, and isotherm studies", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 127 (4), 2607-2619.
Samatya, S., Kabay, N., Yüksel, Ü., Arda, M. & Yüksel, M., 2006, "Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution by nitrate selective ion exchange resins", Reactive and Functional Polymers, 66, 1206-1214.
Shrimali, M. & Singh, K. P., 2001, "New methods of nitrate removal from water", Environmental Pollution, 112, 351-359.
USEPA., 2006, Nitrates and nitrites, U.S. EPA Toxicity and Exposure Assessment for Children’s Health, USA.
Xiao, W., 2015, "Dendrimer functionalized graphene oxide for selenium removal", MSc Thesis, University of Alberta, Canada.