Simulation of "Pump and Treat" and Air Sparging for In-Situ Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Prof., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology

2 Associate Prof., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology


Industrial contamination leakage into groundwater resources is increasing during recent years. Unlike surface water resources, lots of contaminants are stable in groundwater. Hence, several technologies, like Pump-and-Treat (PAT) and Air Sparging (AS), are being used in order to remedy contaminated aquifers. Despite of suggestions about using these two technologies together, there is no integrated simulation model for these two technologies. Using existing models for PAT simulation and combining them with AS simulation model, an integrated model for simulation of these technologies in field scale has been developed in this study. In addition to model validation, remediation of Bagher-Shahr aquifer (west of Tehran refinery)  from MTBE by using AS and PAT technologies has been evaluated during a case study. Based on the suggested design for local remediation of MTBE plume in Bagher-Shar aquifer (without facility installation inside the city area) and during a five- year simulation period, mass of contaminant inside the city area is decreased to half of the initial mass.


1- Khan, F.I., Husain, T., and Hejazi, R. (2004). “An Overview and Analysis of Site Remediation Technologies.” J. Environmental Management, 71, 95-122.
2- McCray, J.E. (2000). “Mathematical Modeling of Air Sparging for Subsurface Remediation.”  J. Hazardous Materials, 72, 237-263.
3-Benner, M.L., Stanford, S.M., Lee, L.S., and Mohtar, R.H. ) 2000(. “Field and Numerical Analysis of In- Situ Air Sparging.” J. Hazardous Materials, 72, 217-236.
4-McKay, D.J., and Acomb, L.J. )1996(. “Air Saturation During Air Injection in Porous Media.” J. Monit. Rem., 16و 86-94.
5-Falta, R.W., Pruess, K., Finsterle, S., and Battistelli, A .(1995). T2VOC User’s Guid, Department of Energy, USA.
6-Group of researchers. (2002). Air sparging design paradigm, US Air Force Armstrong Laboratory, Ohio-USA.
7- U.S. Department of the Interior. (2000). User guide to modularization concepts and the groundwater flow process-MODFLOW2000, Virginia, USA.
8- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. (1999). MT3DMS; User’s guide and documentation, Washington DC, USA.
9-Fetter, C.W. (1993). Contaminant hydrogeology, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York.
10-Lesson, A., Hinchee, R.E., Headington, G.L., and Vogel, C.M.  (1995). “Air distribution in three phase porous media.”Proceeding  from Third International In-situ and Bioremediation Symposium San Diego, CA. USA. 215-222.
11-LaBrecque, D., and Lundergaurd. P.D. (1998). “Air distribution in semi-homogenous soil.” First national Conference on Remediation. Monterey, CA, USA. 59-71.
12- Thomson, N.R., and Johnson, R.L. (2000). “Air Distribution During in Site Air Sparging: An Overview of Mathematical Modeling.” J. Hazardous Materials, 72, 265-282.
13- کمپانی ژنرال دو فیزیک. (1356). مطالعات ژئوفیزیک دشت تهران با متد الکتریک، دفتر مطالعات آبهای زیرزمینی، سازمان امور آب استان تهران.
14- دفتر امور آزمایشگاههای سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست. (1384). "گزارش کمیته راهبری آلودگی نفتی پالایشگاه تهران و حومه آن، جلد دوم : گزارش فنی کمیته.
15- Web Page: US EPA. (1998). “MTBE Fact Sheet #2”,<> (Jan. 10, 2005).
16- US EPA. (1997). “Testing Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste and Water.” Washington DC., USA.