The Effect of Demand Management Using Optimal Pressure Regulation in WDNs During Normal and Water Scarcity Conditions

Document Type : Case study


1 MSc. of Civil Engineering-Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Prof., School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 PhD., School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Paying attention to the conservation of water resources in order to prevent water crises is one of the most important duties of people in the community, including officials. In this regard, the most effective action is water demand management, for which there are different methods. One of these methods is pressure management in order to demand management, which can be used in normal operating conditions as well as in the event of water scarcity. On the other hand, in critical situations where the available water does not meet the total demand, policies such as intermittent water supply are adopted, which are associated with many problems. Therefore, an alternative method is needed to minimize the disadvantages of intermittent water supply,to meet the objectives of demand management and, at the same time is feasible, efficient, and economical. In this research, a combined simulation and optimization model is created by using EPANET2.2 and MATLAB software. With this model, the effects of adopting a water demand management approach using pressure management on the hydraulics of water distribution networks will be investigated. In this research, optimization is done in two approaches. In each case, a different objective function is defined and a genetic algorithm is used for optimization. The developed model has been analyzed on the WDN of Baharestan city located in Isfahan province. The results show that the model is able to reduce the average network pressure by 8 meters by finding the optimal location and adjusting pressure for pressure-reducing valves under normal conditions. Also, during water scarcity, it is able to distribute the available water among the demand nodes considering equity and justice principles. After imposing an 8% deficit on the network, without applying for a pressure management program, 8 demand nodes experienced a shortage between 15 and 30% and 19 experienced a deficit below 5%. However, after optimizing the pressure, only 3 demand nodes experienced a shortage between 15 and 25% and 6 nodes experienced a shortage of less than 5%.


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