Urban Subaltern Areas and Residents' Narrative of Providing Services Water and Wastewater Company (Institutional Ethnography of Urban Subaltern of Sanandaj City)

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Sociology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

2 PhD Student, Dept. of Economics, Management and Social Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Current study seeks to present a narrative of the residents of the suburbs of Sanandaj on the provision of services and urban facilities. This was in contrast to the narratives of the Water and Wastewater Company's experts and statistics, documentation and information were posted on the company's website. The underlying assumption of this study revolves around the fact that suburbs lack adequate facilities and services and have been neglected. To this end, we have used sustainable urban development approaches, urban regeneration and quality of life to explain and change this. With regard to the subject and purpose of the study, we used the institutional ethnographic method by which the researcher seeks to expose the status quo and then provide strategies for changing the status quo. Therefore, data were gathered through theoretical, purposeful sampling with maximum diversity and semi-structured interviews until theoretical saturation with 20 subscribers and 7 experts of Kurdistan Water and Wastewater Company, as well as statistics and relevant documents were collected. The information collected was discussed in terms of concepts, primary and secondary categories. Primary categories were conflicting secondary services, quality of technical management, poor technical management, lack of coordination of events, lack of inter-organizational collaboration, inappropriate network infrastructure, and lack of customer-centricity, uncertainties, and overheads. They were drawn and extracted from these categories; the nuclear category of structural and institutional exclusion and the lack of coordination in the implementation and ambiguities of the bill. The results indicate a lack of sustainable urban development in the marginal areas and consequently a decline in the quality of life. This is reflected in the structural and institutional challenges faced by the suburbs in terms of their utilization of urban facilities. The lack of coordination in the implementation and ambiguities of the water and wastewater company has aggravated the process and caused underdevelopment issues. Therefore, what is needed on the outskirts of Sanandaj is the re-creation of a city that is making changes to the development of water and wastewater network infrastructure, maintaining and protecting the network, and transparency in customer billing and promotion, which is the quantity and quality of service provided in these areas.

Keywords


Adams, D. & Hastings, E. M. 2001. Urban renewal in Hong Kong: transition from development corporation to renewal authority. Land Use Policy, 18(3), 245-258.
Bayat, A. 2018. Street politics: poor peoples movements in Iran, translationby seyed Assadollah Nabavi Chashmi. Tehran: Shirazeh Pub. (In Persian)
Bardiafar, N., Vahid, Gh., Abbas, K. & Jabbar, R. 2019. The process of consuming urban water in Tehran (providing a grounded theory), Iranian Journal of Social Problems, 1, 281-311. (In Persian)
Blowers, A. 2013. Planning for a sustainable environment. Routledge. Pub. UK.
Chan, E. H. & Yung, E. H. 2004. Is the development control legal framework conducive to a sustainable dense urban development in Hong Kong? Habitat International, 28(3), 409-426.
Devault, L. 2006. Liberating method : feminism and social research, translationby Houshang Nayebi. Tehran: University of Tehran Pub. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Gharakhlou, M., Yangi Kand, N. & Zanganeh Shahraki, S. 2009. Analysis of the level of urban sustainability in informal settlements of Sanandaj. Quarterly Journal of Human Geography Research. 69, 1-16. (In Persian)
Hegazy, I. R. 2016. Informal settlement upgrading policies in Egypt: towards improvement in theupgrading process, Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 9(2), 1-22.
Irandoost, k. & Tavalaee, R. 2012. Pattern of poor housing in informal settlements case study: Abbas Abad Sanandaj. Sakht Shahr Journal, 20, 1-12. (In Persian)
Irandoost, K. 2009. Review of the short experience of empowering informal settlements in Kermanshah. Quarterly Journal of Geography and Development, 20, 59-78. (In Persian)
Jafari, M., Heidari Noshahr, M. & Parsa, E. 2018. Role of providing urban services in creating marginal neighborhoods of Yazd city based on citizenship rights. Bioethics Journal, Special Issue on Citizenship Rights, 8, 83-94. (In Persian)
Kurdistan Water and Wastewater Company. 2018. Water and Life Monthly. Kurdistan, Iran. (In Persian)
Lee, G. K. & Chan, E. H., 2008. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach for assessment of urban renewal proposals. Social Indicators Research, 89(1), 155-168.
Mehr news agency. 2018. https://www.mehrnews.com. mehrnews.com/xMxVc. News ID 4415203. (In Persian)
Ministry of Roads and Urban Development of Iran. 2018. www. news.mrud.ir. December 31 th. http://news.mrud.ir/news/76735. (In Persian)
Mohammadpour, A. 2013. Renovation experience, Tehran Jameashenasan Pub. (In Persian)
Mohammadpour, A. 2015. Qualitative research method, anti-method 2, Tehran Jameashenasan Pub. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Molaie, M. 2000. Review of blue poverty indicators. Journal of Water and Environment, 44, 19-23. (In Persian)
National Water and Wastewater Engineering Company. 2017. https://www.nww.ir/&sa=U&ved=2ahUKEwi Gk 7PMp_TtAhXBUBUIHZ7ODl0QFjAAegQIABAB&usg=AOvVaw1jTgunmg1A1pUEI8jjpsJw. (In Persian)
Rezaie, A. 1996. Social participation, goal or development tool. Political-Economic Information Monthly, 13, 54-63. (In Persian)
Ristea, A. L., Valeriu, I. F., Steg─âroiu, I. & Croitoru, G. 2010. Commercial facilities and urban regeneration. Amfiteatru Economic Journal, 12(27), 99-114.
Sanandaj Municipality. 2019. http://www.e-sanandaj.ir/.http://e-sanandaj.ir/fa-IR/DouranPortal/4670/page. (In Persian)
Statistical Center of Iran. 2016. https://www.amar.org.ir/Population and Housing Census. (In Persian)
Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. 1998. Basics of qualitative research techniques. Translation by Afshar, E. Nashre Ney Pub. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Wekesa, B. W., Steyn, G. S. & Otieno, F. F. 2011. A review of physical and socio-economic characteristics and intervention approaches of informal settlements. Habitat International, 35(2), 238-245.
Zheng, H. W., Shen, G. Q. & Wang, H. 2014. A review of recent studies on sustainable urban renewal. Habitat International, 41, 272-279.