Application of Multi-stage Inclined Tube Settlers for Water Turbidity Removal

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Environmenal Eng., University of Tehran, and Faculty Member of Water Eng., Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran

2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Environmental Eng., Azad University, Branch of Ahar

3 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Environmental Eng., University of Tehran, Tehran

4 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Water Eng., Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran

5 Assist. Prof. of Environmental Eng., Dept. of Eng., Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran


The efficiency of particle settling in tube settlers can be improved by reducing tube diameter; however, this has limits due to the clogging at low diameters. In this study, effect of reduced tube diameters on enhanced efficiency of tube settlers was investigated. This improvement was achieved by staging of the operation and reducing tube diameter in the last stage of the multi-stage tube settlers. Theoretical analysis indicated that the efficiency of tube settlers would improve if tube settlers were used in different stages in series and that if their diameter was reduced in the last stage. The predictions from the theoretical analysis were tested in a pilot study. One- and two-stage tube settler pilot plants were used to remove water turbidity caused by clay in the first and second phases of tests with and without adding coagulant, respectively. The tube diameter in the one-stage tube settler were 5.0 cm, and those in those the first and second stages of the two-stage tube settler was 5.0 and 1.2 cm, respectively. The results of both phases showed that the two-stage tube settler was more efficient than the one-stage for turbidity removal with no clogging observed because the majority of the particles had been removed in the first stage.


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