An Intelligent Network Proposed for Assessing Seismic Vulnerability Index of Sewerage Networks within a GIS Framework (A Case Study of Shahr-e-Kord)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ass. Prof., Faculty of Transportation, University of Isfahan, Isfahan

2 Ass. Prof., Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan

3 MSc of Earthquake Engineering, Isfahan


Due to their vast spread, sewerage networks are exposed to considerable damages during severe earthquakes, which may lead to catastrophic environmental contamination. Multiple repairs in the pipelines, including pipe and joint fractures, could be costly and time-consuming. In seismic risk management, it is of utmost importance to have an intelligent tool for assessing seismic vulnerability index at any given point in time for such important utilities as sewerage networks. This study uses a weight-factor methodology and proposes an online GIS-based intelligent algorithm to evaluate the seismic vulnerability index (VI) for metropolitan sewerage networks. The proposed intelligent tool is capable of updating VI as the sewerage network conditions may change with time and at different locations. The city of Shahr-e-Kord located on the high risk seismic belt is selected for a case study to which the proposed methodology is applied for zoning the vulnerability index in GIS. Results show that the overall seismic vulnerability index for the selected study area ranges from low to medium but that it increases in the southern parts of the city, especially in the old town where brittle pipes have been laid


Main Subjects

1. Zare, M.R., Wilkinson, S., and Potangaroa, R.T. (2010). “Vulnerability of wastewater treatment plants and wastewater pumping stations to earthquakes.” Disaster Planing and Management Conf. Cobra 2010, Rics and Dauphinek University, Paris, France.
2. Zare, M., and Wilkinson, S. (2011). “Earthquake damage in wastewater systems and post earthquake repair methods : Limitation and practice.” Australian Earthquake Engineering Society Conference, Novotel Barossa Valley Resort, South Australia.
3. Fukushima, K., Kinoshita, K., Watanabe, T., and  Masuta, T. ( 2006) Investigation and forecast earthquake damage for sewerage systems, Japan Institute of Wastewater Engineering Technology, Tokyo, 171.0021, Japan.
4. Toprak, S. (1998). “Earthquake effects on buried lifeline systems”. Doctorate Thesis, Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University.
5. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). (2000). Estimating earthquake losses with HAZUS, Federal Emergency Management Agency, USA.
6. American Lifelines Alliance. (2004). Wastewater system performanceassessment guidelines, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), USA.
7. American Lifelines Alliance. (2001) Seismic fragility formulations for water systems, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), USA.
8. RISK-UE, Geo-Ter. (2003). Vulnerability assessment of lifelines and essential facilities (WP06): Methodological handbook, Potable water utility system. Report NO. GTR-RSK 0101-152av7, February.
9. Halfaya, F.Z., Bensaibi, M., and Davenne, L. (2014). “Seismic vulnerability curves of water.” Australian Journal of Bacis and Applied Sciences, 8 (19), 21-25.
10. Eidinger, J.M., and Young, J.A. (1993) “Preparedness, performance and mitigation for EBMUD water distribution system for scenario earthquakes.” Proceedings of National Earthquake Conf., Central US Earthquake Consortium, Memphis, Vol. II, p 615-623..
11. Shinozuka, M. (1994). Systems analysis for Memphis Light, gas and water, Research Accomplishments, 1986-1994: NCEER, State Univ. of New York at Buffalo, p. 197-206,.
12. Schiff, A.J., and Buckle, I.G. (1995). “Critical issues and state-of-the-art in lifeline earthquake engineering.” Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, Monograph 7, ASCE, New York, 92 pages.
13. Dodge, C.F., and Pratt, D.L. (1995). “Mokelumne aqueduct seismic upgrade project.” Proceedings of the 4th U.S. Conf. on Lifeline Earthquake Eng., ASCE, New York, p. 723-730.
14. Hopkins, D.C., and Leslie, P.D. (1995). “Securing Wellington's water supply 20-year mitigation plan based on seismic risk assessment.” Proceedings of the 4th U.S. Conf. on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, ASCE, New York, p. 731-738.
15. Sato, T. (1998). “Earthquake damage to buried water supply pipes and their renovation by hose lining technology.” Proceedings of the 7th U.S.-Japan Workshop on Earthquake Disaster Prevention for Lifeline Systems, EQE International, Inc., p. 39-53.
16. Takada, S. (1998). “Study on earthquake resistant performance of new rubber ring type U-PVC pipe for water distribution pipelines.” Proceedings of Third China-Japan-US Trilateral Symposium on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, Kunming, China, p.349-356.
17. Shumuta, Y., Tohma, J., and Shiomi, S. (1998). “Long-term infrastructure/lifeline renewal planning and management with a focus on power and water: A study on optimization method for replacement or retrofitting of power facilities on the basis of risk management.” Multi-lateral Workshop on Development of Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Technologies and their Integration for the Asia-Pacific Region, p. 184-186.
18. Hosseini, M., and Mirza-Hessabi, A. (1999) “Lifeline interaction effects on the earthquake emergency response of fire departments in Tehran metropolis.” Proceedings of the 5th US Conference on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, Seattle, USA.
 19. Miyajima, M.I., and Naomi, K.M. (2000) “Study of retrofit prioritization of water supply pipeline considering required performance after earthquake.” Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Seismic Zonation: Managing Earthquake Risk in the 21st Century, Plam Springs, California.
20. Hosseini, M. (2003) “The latest achievements in the seismic evaluation methods and upgrading techniques for gas and water lifelines.” Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (SEE 4), IIEES, Iran.
 21. Hosseini, M., and Moshirvaziri, H. (2008). “A procedure for risk mitigation of water supply system in large and populated cities.” The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, China.
 22. Ueno, J., Takada, S., and Kuwata, Y. (2004). “Performance of water supply system during the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake.” NCREE Workshop, British Council in Taipei, Taiwan.
23. Zohra, H. F., Mahmoud, B., and Luc, D. (2012) “Vulnerability assessment of water supply network.” Energy Procedia, 18, 772-783.
24. Bargi, K. (1996). Seismic effect on buried gaz pipelines, Bulletin of Faculty of Engineering, Teheran University, pp 22-38. (In Persian).
25. Razavi, S.O. (2012). Numerical analysis of buried pipelines subject to inclined normal faults, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran. (In Persian).
26. Rahimzade, F., and Ghorbani, R. (2009). “Seismic performance of buried pipelines under earthquake body waves propogations.” Fourth National Conference on Civil Engineering, Teheran, University of Teheran (In Persian). 
27. Pineda, O., and  Ordaz, M. (2012). Seismic damage estimation in buried pipelines due to future earthquakes – The case of the Mexico city water system. earthquake-resistant structures – design.” Assessment and Rehabilitation, (51), 978-953.
28. Pineda, O., and Ordaz, M. (2007). “A new seismic intensity parameter to estimate damage in buried pipelines due to seismic wave propagation.” Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 11, 773-778.
29. Hashemi Fesharaki, S.M., Rahgozar, M.A., and Zare, M.R. (2014) “Evaluation of seismic vulnrebality of Shahr-e-kord sewerage network based on HAZUS-SR2 model.” Fifth National Conference on Earthquakes and Structures, Jahad-Daneshgahi, Kerman, Iran. (In Persian).
30. Hosseini, M., and Sarbandi Farahani, M. (2013) “Programing for water network repaires in large cities after earthquakes.” Research Bulletin of Seismology and EarthquakeEngineering, 13-24. (In Persian).
31. Khabaz Tamimi, M.R., Omidvar, B., and Hosseini, M. (2006) “Evaluation of the vulnerability of drinking water network based on HAZUS-SR2 method.” The First Conference on Seismic Retrofitting, Tehran, Iran (In Persian)
32. Moghadam, H. (2011). Fundamentals and application of earthquake engineering, Far Ahang Pub., Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
33. > (July 2014).
34. Memarian, H., Zare, M., Karimi, S., and Mohseni, A. (2008) “Seismic risk zonation and micro-zonation of Shahr-e-kord region.” 2nd Conference on Natural Disasters Hazard Mitigations, Teharan, Scientific Center for Surveying and Natural Disasters Hazard Mitigations, Faculty of Engineering, Teheran University. (In Persian).
35. <> (July 2014)
36. Mojarab, M. (2008). “Natural disaster zonation in urban areas, case study in Shahr-e-Kord.” MSc Thesis, University of Tehran, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mining Engineering, Tehran
37. Esrico. (2010). “Arc.GIS desktop version 10.1.” <<>> (July 2014).