Adsorption of Chromium (VI) from Polluted Water Using Core/Shell Nano Magnetic Particles of Fe3O4/CoO

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Former Graduate Student, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran


Chromium (VI) enters water resources via effluents of metallurgical, chemical pigments, electroplating, and tanning industries. The chromium accumulation in animal and plant tissues can cause serious dangers. In human, chromium (VI) causes damage to liver, kidney, and lung. The aim of this research is the removal of chromium (VI) from water by Fe3O4/CoO nanostructured magnetic adsorbent. In this work, nano magnetic particles of Fe3O4/CoO were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were used for the adsorption of chromium (VI) from water. The Fe3O4/CoO adsorbent was characterized by ICP, XRD, TEM, and VSM methods. Effects of pH on chromium (VI) adsorption on Fe3O4/CoO were studied. The isotherm and kinetics of the adsorption were also studied. TEM images confirmed the formation of the core/shell structure of the nanoparticles. The VSM test showed the magnetic property of the Fe3O4/CoO adsorbent. The experimental data were better fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. In a batch operation, by using 1.5 g of Fe3O4/CoO adsorbent, 100 mL of chromium (VI) solution with the concentration of 50 mg/L and pH 3, the chromium (VI) removal yield of 89.04% was obtained after 24 hours. The magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4/CoO are a good adsorbent to remove chromium (VI) from water with the advantage of easy separation from water by an external magnetic force.


Abia, A. A. & Igwe, J. C. 2005. Sorption kinetics and intraparticulate diffusivities of Cd, Pb, and Zn ions on maize cob. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, 509-512.
Ahalya, K., Suriyanarayanan, N. & Ranjithkumar, V. 2014. Effect of cobalt substitution on structural and magnetic properties and chromium adsorption of manganese ferrite nano particles. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 372, 208-213.
Ballav, N., Choi, H.J., Mishra, S.B. & Maity, A. 2014. Synthesis, characterization of Fe3O4@glycinepolyrrole magnetic nanocomposites and their potential performance to remove toxic Cr(VI). Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 20, 4085-4093.
Chavez-Guajardo, A. E., Medina-Llamas J.C., Maqueira L., Andrade C.A.S., Alves K.G.B. & De Melo C.P. 2015. Efficient removal of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous media by use of polypyrrole/maghemite and polyaniline/maghemite magnetic nanocomposites. Chemical Engineering Journal, 281, 826-836.
Duan, S., Tang, R., Xue, Z., Zhang, X., Zhao, Y., Zhang, W. et al. 2015. Effective removal of Pb(II) using magnetic Co0.6Fe2.4O4 micro-particlesas the adsorbent: synthesis and study on the kinetic and thermodynamic behaviors for its adsorption. Colloids and Surfaces A. Physicochemical Engineering Aspects, 469, 211-223.
Foroughi, F., Hassanzadeh-Tabrizi, S.A., Amighian, J., & Saffar-Teluri, A. 2015. A designed magnetic CoFe2O4–hydroxyapatite core–shell nanocomposite for Zn(II) removal with high efficiency. Ceramics International, 41, 6844-6850.
Gavrila, H. & Ionita, V. 2002. Crystalline and amorphous soft magnetic materials and their applications-status of art and challenges. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 4, 143-192.
Ghosh, A., Pal M., Biswas K., Ghosh U.C. & Manna B. 2015. Manganese oxide incorporated ferric oxide nanocomposites (MIFN): a novel adsorbent for effective removal of Cr(VI) from contaminated water. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 7, 176-186.
Hashemian, S., Dehghanpor, A. & Moghahed, M. 2015. Cu0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 nano spinels as potential sorbent for adsorption of brilliant green. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 24, 308-314.
Hong, R., Li, J.H., Cao, X., Zhang, S.Z., Dic, G.Q., Li, H.Z. et al. 2009. On the Fe3O4/Mn1−xZnxFe2O core/shell magnetic nanoparticles. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 480, 947-953.
Hong, R. Y., Zhang S.Z., Di G.Q., Li H.Z., Zheng Y., Ding J. et al. 2008. Preparation, characterization and application of Fe3O4/ZnO core/shell magnetic nanoparticles. Materials Research Bulletin, 43, 2457-2468.
Kalambate, P. K., Huang, Z., Li, Y., Shen, Y., Xie, M., Huang, Y. et al. 2019. Core@shell nanomaterials based sensing devices: a review. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 115, 147-161.
Khalil, L. B., Mourad W.E., Rophael M.W. 1998. Photocatalytic reduction of environmental pollutant Cr(VI) over some semiconductors under UV/visible light illumination. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 17, 267-273.
Kumari, M., Pittman Jr C.U. & Mohan D. 2015. Heavy metals [chromium (VI) and lead (II)] removal from water using mesoporous magnetite (Fe3O4) nanospheres. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 442, 120-132.
Li, P., Bruce, R.L. & Hobday, M. 1999. A pseudo first order rate model for the adsorption of an organic adsorbate in aqeous solution. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 74, 55-59.
Lu, W., Guo, X., Luo, Y., Li, Q., Zhu, R., & Pang, H. 2019. Core-shell materials for advanced batteries. Chemical Engineering Journal, 355, 208-237.
Rasaki, S. A., Zhang, B., Liu, S., Thomas, T. & Yang, M. 2018. Nanourchin ZnO@TiCN composites for Cr(VI) adsorption and thermochemical remediation. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6(4), 3837-3848.
Selvi, K., Pattabhi, S. & Kadirvelu, K. 2001. Removal of Cr(VI) from aqeous solution by adsorption onto activated carbon. Bioresource Technology, 80, 87-89.
Shirzad Siboni, M., Samadi, M. T., Yang, J. K. & Lee,  S. M. 2012. Photocatalytic removal of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) by UV/TiO2 kinetic study. Desalination and Water Treatment, 40, 77-83.
Stepniewska, Z., Wolinska, A. & Pioro, W. 2007. Chromium migration in the vinicity of a tannery waste lagoon. Polish Journal of Soil Science, 40, 139-148.
Wang, P. & Lo, I.M.C. 2009. Synthesis of mesoporous magnetic γ-Fe2O3 and its application to Cr(VI) removal from conatmiated water. Water Research, 43, 3727-3734.
Wang, W., Wang, X., Wang, X., Yang, L., Wu, Z., Xia, S. et al. 2013. Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solution with bamboo charcoal chemically modified by iron and cobalt with the assistance of microwave. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 25, 1726-1753.
Zhang, W., Zhang, S., Wang, J., Wang, M., He, Q., Song, J. et al. 2018. Hybride functionalized chitosan-Al2O3@SiO2 composite for enhanced Cr(VI) adsorption. Chemosphere, 203, 188-198.