Reliability Performance Assessment of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Assessment of the Reliability Performance of WWTPs in West Azarbaijan

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc in Environmental Engineering, Urumia University of Medical Sciences, Urumia

2 Prof., Dept. of Environmental Health Eng., School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

3 Prof., Dept. of Environmental Health Eng., School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran


Performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Urmia, Khoy, Miandoab, Salmas, and Bookan were evaluated during the years 2008 to 2011 based on the reliability approach. The approach predicts the overall performance of WWTPs and their processes and, thereby, makes the screening of treatment technologies possible. The required BOD5, COD, and TSS data were collected using the records available at West Azerbayejan Water and Wastewater Company, local surveys, and interviews with operators. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS. The valid Niku modeling was employed to calculate the Rmeasured , Revaluated, COR, and expected percentages of compliance with discharge standards and a significant relationship was found among these parameters. The results also showed the log normal distribution of effluent characteristics. Furthermore,SBR and biolac processes exhibited higher values of Rmeasured (90-100%), Revaluated (93-100%), and expected percentages of compliance with the discharge standards (95-99.97%) in all the WWTPs studied but lower values of COR (0.41-0.64) than those in aerated lagoons. The coefficients obtained in this study can, therefore, be used for the development and construction designs of similar systems.


Main Subjects

  1. Tchobanoglous, G., and Burton, F.L. (2003). Wastewater engineering-treatment, disposal, reuse, 4th Ed., Metcalf and Eddy, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.
  2. WHO. (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th Ed., World Health Organization, Geneva.
  3. American Water Works Association. (2011). Water quality and treatment, a handbook on drinking water,
    6th Ed., USA.
  4. WHO. (2011). Pharmaceuticals in drinking-water, World Health Organization, Geneva.
  5. Leverenz, H., and Tchobanoglous, G. (2005). “Challenges for sustainable wastewater management in the 21st century.” Dept. of Civil and Env. Eng., University of California, USA.
  6. EPA. (2008). Emerging technologies for wastewater treatment and in-plant wet weather management, USA.
  7. EPA. (2004). Primer for municipal wastewater treatment system, USA.
  8. Flores-Alsina, X., Gallego, A., Feijoo, G., and Rodriguez-Roda, I. (2010). “Multiple-objective evaluation of wastewater treatment plant control alternatives.” J. of Environmental Management, (91), 1193-1201.
  9. Vijayabhanu, R., and Radha, V. (2013). “Asurvey on anaerobic wastewater treatment plant based on effluent COD.” Int. J. of Computer Science and Applications, 2(2), 59-69.

10. Abdulaziz Al Saleem, S.S. (2007). “Performance snalysis of municipal wastewater treatment plants, reliability-based analysis.” Master’s Degree, Dept. of Civil Eng., King Saud Univesity.

11. EPA. (2008). Municipal nutrient removal technologyies, Reference Document, USA.

12. Dong, H.Y., Qiang, Z.M., Wang, W.D., and Jin, H. (2012). “Evaluation of rural wastewater treatment processes in a county of eastern china.” J. of Environ. Monit., (14), 1906-1913.

13. Oliveira, S.C., and Von Sperling, M. (2008). “Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.” J. of Water Research, 42, 1182-1194.

14. EPA. (2005). Decentralized wastewater system reliability analysis handbook, National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project (NDWRCDP) Research Projec, USA.

15. Sundara Kumar, K., Sundra Kumar, P., and Ratankanth Babu, M.J. (2010) “Performance evaluation of wastewater treatment plant.” Int. J. of Engineering Science and Technology, 2(12), 7785-7796.

16. Miranzadeh, M., and Babamir, S.H. (2001). “Investigation of efficiency of Ekbatan wastewater treatment during 2000-2001.” J. of Faiz, 25, 29-43. (In Persian)

17. Bagheri, P., Sadeghi, H., Nabae, A., and Bagheri, M. (2010). “Efficiency assessment of wastewater treatment plant: Case study, Zanjan.” J. of Health and Hygine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, 1(3), 67-75.

18. Rezaee Kalantari, R., Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R., Shirpey, A.A., and Jorfi, S. (2006). “Investigation of Efficiency of aerted lagoons in Khorraabad wastewater treatment plant.” First National Conference on Water Wastewater Sector, Ministry of Energy, Tehran. (In Persian)

19. Laura Guerra. (2010). “Evaluation of bassussarry wastewater treatment plant after upgrading with membrane bioreactor technology.” MSc Thesis, Dept. of Chemical Eng., Lund University, Farance.

20. Bailey Green, F., Lundquist, T.J., and Brown, R.E. (2006). Energy-efficient wastewater treatment at Hilmar, California: A Case Study, 2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, California.

21. Mouhanni, H., Bendou, A., and Houari, M. (2013). “Study of the wastewater purifying performance in the M’Zar plant of agadir, Morocco.” J. of Environment and Pollution, 2(3), 20-30.

22. Kamel, A.Z., and Nada, A.A. (2008). “Performance of wastewater treatment plants in jordan and suitability for reuse.” African J. of Biotechnology, 7(15), 2621-2629.

23. Kor, Y., Zazooli, M.A., Keramat, S., Kord, M., Khademian, M., and Ayoobi, R. (2009). “Performance assessment and methods on optimization of aerted lagoons in Bandar gaz wastewater treatment plant.” J. of Health School, Yazd University of Medical Sciences, 1(2), 46-53. (In Persian)

24. Niku, S., Schroder, E.D., and Samaniego, F.J. (1979). “Performance of activated sludge processes and reliability-based design.” J. of Water Pollution Control Federation, 51, (12), 2841-2857.

25. Eisenberge, D., Soller, J., Sakaji, R., and Olivier, A., (2001). “A Methodology to evaluate water and wastewater treatment plant reliability.” J. of Water Science and Technology, 43(10), 91-99.

26. Crites, R., and Tchobanoglous, G. (1998). Small and decentralized wastewater management systems, McGraw-Hill, New York.

27. Gahangir, M. (2006). The collection of rules and requirements in city and municipality, Agah Pub., Tehran. (In Persian)

28. Cohen, A.I., Bar-Shalom, Y., Winkler, W., and Grimsrud, Gp. (1975). A quantitative method for effluent compliance monitoring recourses allocation, EPA-600/5-75-015, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, USA.

29. Gordon, C., Wesner, G., Williams, R., and Hughes Maark, V. (1980). Wastewater reuseand recycling technology, Noyes Data Corporation, New Jersey, USA

30. Kahn, H.D., and Rubin, M.B. (1989). “Use of statistical methods inIndustrial water pollution control regulations in the united states.” J. of Environmental Monitoringand Assessment, 12(2-3), 129-148.

31. Niku, S., Schroder, E.D., and Haugh, R. (1982). “Reliability and stability of trickling filter processes.” J. of Water Pollution Control Federation, 54(2), 457-470.

32. Ossenbruggen, P.J., Constantine, K., Collins, M.R., and Bishop, P.L. (1987). “Toward optimum control of the activated sludge prosess with reliability analysis.” J. of Civil Engineering Systems, 4(2), 77-86.

33. USEPA. (1991). Technical support document for water quality-based toxics control, EPA505/2-90-001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, USA.

34. Sabahi, M., Moslehi, I., and Uromia, H. (2011). “Analysis and investigation of reliability in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants in Iran.” 4th Conference of Iranian Water Resources Management, Amir Kabir University, Tehran. (In Persian)

35. Fazelian Dehkordi, E., and Ghaneian, M. (2005). “Performance assessment of Yazd wastewater treatment plant (stabilization pond).” 8th National Conference of Environmental Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. (In Persian)

36. Redda, A.M., and Kruzic, A.P. (2008). “Studies of the performance, stability and reliability of various configurations of the activated sludge process at full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants.” The University of Texas at Arling the ton, USA.

37. Taleb Bidakhti, T., Dehghani, M.H., and Azam, K. (2009). “Effluent quality assessment of Tehran wastewater treatment plants.” 12th National Conference of Environmental Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. (In Persian)

38. Naddafi, K., and Dehghanifard, E., Mostofi, S., and Faezi Razi, D. (2006). “Investigation of wastewater treatment plants in Iran during 2006 and determine of the upgrading needs for those during 2006.” 2nd National Conference on Water and Wastewater, Water and Power University of Tech., Tehran. (In Persian)

39. EPA. (2011). Principles of design and operations of wastewater treatment pond systems for plant operators, engineers and managers, USA.