Removal of Chromium from Industrial Wastewater Using Silicon Nanoparticle

Document Type : Research Paper



Hexavalent chromium is a pollutant found in surface and underground waters that causes serious environmental hazards. Chromium enters water as a result of industrial activities such as electroplating, dyeing, leather tanning, and metal manufacturing. The objective of the present laboratory-experimental study was to remove chromate from industrial effluents using silicon nanoparticles. The experiments were performed with both simulated synthetic wastewater and true wastewater. Various parameters such as pH, contact time, and different concentrations of Cr(VI) and SiO2 were examined. The data obtained were analyzed using the Excel and SPSS Ver. 16. It was found that Cr(VI) removal increased with decreasing pH and increasing contact time. The highest Cr(VI) removal was achieved at pH=3 and a contact time of 120 minutes. It was also observed that removal observed to obey the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second-order kinetic models, respectively. The findings indicate that silicon nanoparticles are capable of removeing Cr(VI) from industrial effluents. Given the Cr(VI) removal efficiency of 93.6% achieved under optimum conditions and  the removal efficiency of 88.6% achieved in real samples, the method may be recommended as a highly efficient one for removing Cr(VI) from industrial wastewaters.


Main Subjects

1. Barquist, K., and Larsen, S.C. (2010). “Chromate adsorption on bifunctional, magnetic zeolite composites.” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 130(1-3), 197-202.
2. Wan Ngah, W., and Hanafiah, M. (2010). “Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: A review.” Bioresource Technology, 99(10), 3935-3948.
3. Nemr, A.E. (2009). “Potential of pomegranate husk carbon for Cr (VI) removal from wastewater: Kinetic and isotherm studies.” J. Hazard. Mater, 161, 132-141.
4. Daneshvar, N., Salari, D., and Aber, S. (2002). “Chromium adsorption and Cr (VI) reduction to trivalent chromium in aqueous solutions by soya cake.” J. Hazard. Mater. B., 94, 49-61.
5. Costa, M. (2003). “Potential hazards of hexavalent chromate in our drinking water.” Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol., 188, 1-5.
6. Yas, A. R., Andelib, A., and Nuran, D.A. (2009). “Adsorption of chro-mium on chitosan: Optimization, kinetics and ther-modynamics.” J. Chem Eng, 151, 188-194.
7. Vikrant, S., and Pant, K.K. (2006). “Removal of chromium from industrial waste by using eucalyptus bark.”
J. Hazard Mater, 97, 15-20.
8. Wang, P. L.I. (2009). “Synthesis of mesoporous magnetic -Fe2O3 and its application to Cr (VI) removal from  contaminated water.” Water Research, 43, 3727-3734.
9. Vikrant, S. P.K. (2008). “Removal of chromium from industrial waste by using eucalyptus bark.” J. Hazard Mater, 97, 15-20.
10. Kotas, A. S.Z. (2000). “Chromium occurrence in the environmental and methods of its speciation.” Environmental pollution, 107, 263-83.
11. Hu, J. C.G., and Lo, I. (2005). “Removal and recovery of Cr (VI) from wastewater by maghemite nanoparticles.” Water Research, 39, 4528-4536.
12. Li, H., Li, Z., Liu, T., Xiao, X., Peng, Z., and Deng, L. (2008). “A novel technology for biosorption and recovery hexavalent chromium in wastewater by bio-functional magnetic beads.” Bioresource Technology, 99(14), 6271-6279.
13. Sardashti, A. (2003). “Removal of chromium from industrial wastewater.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 45, 18-25. (In Persian)
14. Liberti, L., lopez, A., Amicarelli, V., and Boghetich, G.A. (1995). “Review of the RIM-MUT process natural zeolite.” Int Comm. Nat. Zeolit Brock Port, New York, 351-362.
15. Dimitova, S. (1996). “Metal sorption on blast furnace slage.” Water Research, 30, (1), 222-228.
16. Narayanan, N.V., and Ganesan, M. (2009). “Use of adsorption using granular activated carbon (GAC) for the enhance-ment of removal of chromium from synthetic wastewater by electrocoagulation.” J. Hazard. Mater., 161, 575-580.
17. Asgari, G., Rahmani, A., Faradmal, J., Motaleb, A., and Mohammadi, S. (2012). “Kinetic and isotherm of hexavalent chromium adsorption on to nanao hydroxyapatite.” JRHS., 12(1), 45-53.
18. Jal, P.K., Patel, S., and Mishra, B.K. (2004). “Chemical modification of silica surface by immobilization of functional groups for extractive concentration of metal ions.” Talanta, 62, 1005-1028.
19. Heidari, A., Younesi, H., and Mehraban, Z. (2009). “Removal of Ni (II), Cd (II), and Pb (II) from a ternary aqueous solution by amino functionalized mesoporous and nano mesoporous silica.” Chemical Engineering Journal, 153(1), 70-79.
20. Badr, Y., Abdel-Wahed, M.G., and Mahmoud, M.A. (2008). “Photocatalytic degradation of methyl red dye by silica nanoparticles., J. Hazard Mater, 154(1-3), 245-253.
21.Luo, D., Yu, Q.W., Yin, H.R., and Feng, Y.Q. (2007). “Humic acid-bonded silica as a novel sorbent for solid-phase  extraction of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils.” Analytica Chimica Acta, 588, 261-267.
22. Syed, S., Alhazzaa, M.I., and Asif, M. (2011). “Treatment of oily water using hydrophobic nano-silica.” Chemical Engineering Journal, 167, 99-103.
23. Andrew, D.E., Clescerl, L.S., Greenberg, A.E., Eaton, A.D. (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th Ed., APHA., USA.
24. Candela, P.M., Martin-Martinez, J., and Torregrosa- Macia, R. (1995). “Chromium(VI) removal with activated carbons.” Water Res.,29 (9), 2174-2180.
25. Rahmani, A., Nuorozi, R., Samadi, M., and Shirzad, M. (2012). “Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by adsorption on to commercial iron powder, study of equilibrium and kinetic.” Scientific J. of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, 18(3), 33-39. (In Persian)
26. Geselbarcht, J. (1996). “Microfiltration reverse osmosis pilot trials for Livermore, California, advanced water reclamation.” Water Reuse Conference Proceedings, AWWA California, p.187.
27. Lai, Keith, C.K., and Lo Irene, M.C. (2008). “Removal of chromium (VI) by acid-washed zero-valent iron undervarious groundwater geochemistry conditions.” Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 (4), 1238-1244.
28. Soumitra Kar, A., Kumar, S., Tomar, B.S., and Manchanda, V.K. (2011). “Sorption of curium by silica colloids: Effect of humic acid.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 186, 1961-1965.
29. Asuha, S., Zhou, X.G., and Zhao, S. (2010). “Adsorption of methyl orange and Cr(VI) on mesoporous TiO2 prepared by hydrothermal method.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 181, 204-210.
30. Kadikan, T., Rajgopal, S., and Miranda, L.R. (2005). “Chromium(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution by Hevea Brasilinesis sawdust activated carbon.” J. Hazar. Mater., 124,192-199.
31. Samarghandi, M., Aziziyan, S., and Shirzad, M. (2010). “Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous medium using a modified sawdust Raji tree: Equilibrium and kinetic studies.” Scientific of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, 16(4), 61-66.
32. Haggerty, G.M., and Bowman, S.R. (1994). “Sorption of chromate and other inorganic anions by organozeolite.” Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 452-458.
33. Ghiaci, M., Kiaa, R., Abbaspur, A., and Seyedeyn-Azad, F. (2004). “Adsorption of chromate by surfactant-modified zeolites and MCM-41 molecular sieve.” Separation and Purification Technol, 40(3), 285-295.
34. Liu, S., Chen, Y., Zhang, L., Hua, G., Xu, W., Li, N., and Zhang, Y. (2011). “Enhanced removal of trace Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution by titanium oxide–Ag composite adsorbents.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 190, 723-728.
35.Asadi, A., Haibati, B., Dehghani, M. H., Amini, H., and Golestani Far, H. (2012). “Application of Nano-Al2O3 powder for removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions.” J. Safety and Health Ardabil, 2(4), 7-17.
36. Khodabakhshi, A., Amin, M., Mozaffari, M., and Bina, B. (2010). “Removal of Cr(VI) ) from simulated electroplating wastewater by maghemite nanoparticles.” J. of Health, 6, 934-944.