Calibration of Parameters with Dynamic Effects in Pipe Network Simulation Using the Inverse Transient Analysis in the Frequency Domain

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz

2 Assoc. Prof. of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz

3 Prof. of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz


Transient flows naturally occur in piping systems due to operation exigencies. It is, therefore, essential to analyze water distribution networks under transient flow conditions in an attempt to enhance their reliability. The accuracy of such an analysis highly depends on such input parameters as pipe wall roughness, wave speed, and unsteady friction loss coefficients. As these parameters vary from system to system and in different flow conditions, they cannot be definitively determined in practice. Generally, the parameters are determined by engineering judgments and trial-and-error estimations. For complex pipe networks, this can be very burdensome and time-consuming. Moreover, there are great numbers of dynamic parameters in water supply networks and their interactions are so complicated that it is extremely difficult to explicitly determine the role of each one in the system responses observed. This calls for mathematical simulation models to predict systems responses accurately. In this study, an inverse transient analysis model is introduced for the calibration of input parameters. A reverse method based on a series of measurements and computations was used for the solution of the calibration problem and efforts were made to reduce the value of the objective function by finding the optimum solution. However, the model introduced in this work differs from other similar ones in that inverse transient analysis models are often used in the time-domain while the current work uses the transfer matrix method to analyze the system in the frequency-domain. The frequency analysis of a pipe network not only provides a deep insight into the system performance but also speeds up the simulation and optimization computations. Finally, the model is applied to a lab-scale pipe network from the Technical University of Lisbon as a reference model. The parameters with dynamic effects are calibrated and compared with available data obtained from massive experimental observations and numerical trial-and-errors in the time domain. Results indicate not only that the model is adequately simple and faster than its counterpart model in the time domain but that it is capable of successfully calibrating the network with results in good agreement with observed data.


Chaudhry, M.H., 2014, Applied hydraulic transients, 3rd Ed., Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London. ISBN 978-1-4614-8538-4 (eBook)
Covas, D. & Ramos, H., 2001, "Hydraulic transients used for leakage detection in water distribution systems", In:Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Water Pipeline Systems: Managing Pipeline Assets in an Evolving Market, York, UK
Haghighi, A. & Keramat, A., 2012, "A fuzzy approach for considering uncertainty in transient analysis of pipe networks", Journal of Hydroinformatics, 14 (4), 1024-1035.
Haghighi, A. & Ramos, H.M., 2012, "Transient detection of leakage freshwater and friction factor calibration in drinking networks using central force optimization", Water Resource Management, 26, 2347-2363.
Haghighi, A., 2010, "Multi criteria calibration of pipelines under unsteady flows", Journal of Hydraulic, 5(1),
Haghighi, A., 2009, "Development of leak detection and calibration methods in pipelines based on inverse transient modeling", PhD Thesis, K.N. Toosi Univversity of Technology, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Jung, B.S. & Karney, B.W., 2008, "Systematic exploration of pipeline network calibration using transients",
Journal of Hydraulic Research, 46(1), 129-137.
Kapelan, Z.S., Savic, D.A. & Walters, G.A., 2002, "Hybrid GA for calibration of water distribution models", In: Proc. EWRI, Roanoke, VA.
Kapelan, Z.S., Savic, D.A. & Walters, G.A., 2003, "A hybrid inverse transient model for leakage detection and roughness calibration in pipe networks", Journal of Hydraulic Research, 41 (5), 481-492.
Kapelan, Z.S., Savic, D.A. & Walters, G.A., 2004, "Incorporation of prior information on parameters in inverse transient analysis for leak detection and roughness calibration", Urban Water Journal, 1 (2),
Kim, S., 2007, "Impedance matrix method for transient analysis of complicated pipe networks", Journal of Hydraulic Research, 45(6), 818-828.
Kim, S. H., 2008, "Address-oriented impedance matrix method for generic calibration of heterogeneous pipe network systems", Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 134(1), 66-75.
Kim, S.H., 2010, "Dynamic memory computation of impedance matrix method", Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 137 (1), 122-128.
Liggett, J.A. & Chen, L. C., 1994, "Inverse transient analysis in pipe networks", Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 120 (8), 934-950.
Shamloo, H. & Haghighi, A., 2009, "Leak detection in pipelines by inverse backward transient analysis", Journal of Hydraulic Research , 47(3), 311-318.
Shamloo, H. & Haghighi, A., 2010, "Optimum leak detection and calibration of pipe networks by inverse transient analysis", Journal of Hydraulic Research, 48(3), 371-376.
Vítkovský, J. P., Lee, P.J., Zecchin, A.C., Simpson, A.R. & Lambert, M.F., 2011, "Head-and flow-based formulations for frequency domain analysis of fluid transients in arbitrary pipe networks", Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 137(5), 556-568.
Vitkovsky, J.P., Lambert, M.F., Simpson, A.R. & Bergant, A., 2003, "Steady-oscillatory flow solution including unsteady friction in : Pumps", Cebrera E., and Cebrera, E. Jr.,A.A. (Eds.): Electromechanical devices and systems applied to urban water management, Balkema Publishers , Lisse.
Vitkovsky, J.P., Simpson, A.R. & Lambert, M., 2000, "Leak detection and calibration using transients and genetic algorithms", Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 126 (4), 262-265.
Wylie, E.B. & Streeter, V.L., 1993, Fluid transientsin systems, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.
Zecchin, A. C., Simpson, A. R., Lambert, M. F., White, L. B. & Vítkovský, J. P., 2009, "Transient modeling of arbitrary pipe networks by a Laplace-domain admittance matrix", Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 135(6), 538-547.