Assessment of Pb (II) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ascorbic Acid-stabilized Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Former Graduate Student of Soil Science, Sari University of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Sari

2 Assist. Prof. of Soil Science, Sari University of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences

3 Prof. of Soil Science, Sari University of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences

4 Assist. Prof., Department of Basic Sciences, Sari University of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Sari


The growing pollution of water resources and the limited availability of water supplies have led to a growing interest by researchers to develop novel methods of water remediation and reuse. One such method is the use of ascorbic acid-stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles (AAS-ZVIN) for the removal of lead (Pb) from aqueous solutions. Using zero-valent iron nanoparticles stabilized with acid ascorbic under aerobic conditions, the present study was conducted to assess the efficiency of Pb removal from aqueous solutions and its optimization by the response surface methodology (RSM). For this purpose, use was made of the central composite design and the response surface methodology with the four input variables of ASS- ZVIN dose (0.5, 1, and 2 g L-1), pH (2, 5, and 7), contact time (5, 20, and 60 min), and initial Pb concentration (5, 10, and 20 mg L-1) to determine the optimal conditions for the process. Numerical optimization revealed that the optimum conditions for Pb removal (97.93%) included an ASS-ZVIN dose of 2 g L-1, an initial Pb (II) concentration of 25 mg L-1, a contact time of 60 min, and an initial solution pH of 7. The results also imply that not only does ASS-ZVIN offer a good potential for the remediation of water bodies contaminated with Pb, given its high reactivity for Pb removal, but that  the RSM optimization process can be successfully employed for the optimization of the process in question.


Main Subjects

Alidokht, L., Khataee, A.R., Reyhanitabar, A. & Oustan, S., 2011, "Cr (VI) immobilization process in a Cr - spiked soil by zero valent iron nanoparticle: Optimization using response surface methodology", Clean, Soil Air Water, 39 (7), 633-640.
Alizadeh, R., Abedini, S. & Nabibydhendi, F., 2010, "Removal of Pb from battery manufacture industry using magnetic nanoparticles", Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 3 (1), 71-77.
Babel, S. & Kurniawan, T. A., 2003, "Low – cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: A review", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 97(1-3), 219 -243.
Esalah, O. J., Weber, M. E. & Vera, J. H., 2000, "Removal of lead, cadmium and zinc from aqueous solutions by precipitation with sodium di - (n-octyl) phosphine", Journal of Chemical Engineering, 78(5), 948- 954.
Kasiri, M. B. & Khataee, A. R., 2012, "Removal of organic dyes by UV/H2O2 process: Modeling and optimization", Environmental Technology, 33, 1417-1425.
Khataee, A. R., 2010, "Optimization of UV - promoted peroxide sulfate oxidation of C.I. basic blue 3 using response surface methodologies", Environmental Technology, 31, 73-86.
Li, Q., Zhai, J., Zhang, W., Wang, M. & Zhou, J., 2007, "Kinetic studies of adsorption of Pb (II), Cr (II) and Cu (II) from aqueous solution by sawdust and modified peanut husk", Journal of Hazardous Material, 144 (1), 162-167.
Myers, R. H. & Montgomery, D. C., 2002, Response surface methodology: Process and product optimization using designed experiments, 2nd Ed., Wiley Pub. Inc., New York, 51-83.
O’Carroll, D., Sleep, B., Krol, M., Boparai, H. & Kocur, C., 2013, "Nano scale zero valent iron and bimetallic particles for contaminated site remediation", Advances in Water Resources, 10, 104-122.
Ponder, S. M., Darab, J. G. & Mallouk, T. E., 2000, "Remediation of Cr (VI) and Pb (II) aqueous solution using nanoscale zero-valent iron", Environmental Science and Technology, 34(12), 2564-2569.
Prectha, B. & Viruthagiri, T., 2007, "Application of response surface methodology for the bio sorption of copper using rhizopusarrhizus", Journal of Hazardous Material, 143, 506 - 510.
Ramazanpour Esfahani, A., Farrokhian Firouzi, A., Sayyad, G. H. & Kiasat, A., 2011, "Removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions using zero - valent iron nanoparticles", 6th National Conference and Exhibition of Environmental Engineering, Tehran. (In Persian)
Ramazanpour Esfahani, A., Farrokhian Firouzi, A., Sayyad, G. H., Kiasat, A., Alidokht, L. & Khataee, A., 2014, "Pb (II) removal from aqueous solution by polyacrylic acid stabilized zero - valent iron nanoparticles: Process optimization using response surface methodology", Research Chemical Intermediates, 40, 431-445.
Ruangchainikom, C., Liao, C. H., Jin, A.T. & Lee, M.T., 2006, "Effects of water characteristics on nitrate reduction by the Fe0 / CO2 process", Chemosphere, 63 (2), 335-343.
Saberi, A., 2012, "Comparison of Pb2+ removal efficiency by zero valent iron nanoparticles and Ni / Fe bimetallic nanoparticles", Journal of Energy Environmental Science, 3, 189-196.
Sun, Y. P., Li, Q. L., Cao, J., Zhang, W. X. & Wang, H., P., 2007, "Characterization of zero valent iron nanoparticles", Advances Colloid Interface Science, 47, 48-56.
Uzum, C., Shahwan, T., Eroglu, A. E., Hallam, K. R., Scott, T. B. & Lieberwirth, I., 2009, "Synthesis and characterization of kaolinite - supported zero - valent iron nanoparticles and their application for the removal of aqueous Cu2+ and Co2+ ions", Applied Clay Science, 43, 172-181.
Zhang, W. X., 2003, "Nano scale iron particles for environmental remediation: An overview", Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 5, 323-332.
Zhang, X., Liu, S., Chen, Z., Megharaj, M. & Naidu, R., 2011, "Kaolinite - supported nano scale zero - valent iron for removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution reactivity, characterization and mechanism", Water Research, 45 (11), 3481 - 3488.