Biosorption of Cadmium by Fungal Strains Isolated from Wastewater of Zanjan Leads and Zinc Plants



In this study the biosorption of cadmium from industrial wastewater was studied by isolated fungal strains. For this purpose, the effluent samples were collected from leads and zinc plant of Zanjan. Then, cadmium resistant strains (yeast and a mold) were isolated by cultivation on BHI agar containing cadmium sulfate. After preparing the living and dead biomass, the effect of pH, initial metal concentration and contact time in removal of cadmium was investigated. In this study it was found that the dead biomass of yeast and mold were able to remove86.95% and 58.65% of cadmium from the samples respectively. The results also showed that the living biomass of yeast and mold removed cadmium 29.84% and 31.94% reapectively.  Most removal occurred after 60 minutes of contact time. . These strains were identified by 18SrRNA PCR sequencing method. Yeast strain had 99% homology with Rhodosporidium toruloides SM30and mold strain had 100% homology with Aspergillus melleus. Thus, these strains could be used for bioremediation studies in semi-industrial scale.


1- Timberleey, M., and Rome, I.P. (2002). “Microorganisms and metal pollutants.” J. of Environmental Microbiology, 17, 403-423.
2- Malik, A. (2004). “Metal bioremediation through growing cells.” J. of Environment International, 30, 261-278.
3- Mark, R.B., Sanjay, K., and Fredrick, W.O. (2000). “Review microbial resistance to metals in the environment.” J. of Ecotoxicology and Environment Safety, 45, 198-207.
4- Nucifora, G., Chu, L., Misra, T., and Silver, S. (1998). “Cadmium resistance from Staphylococcus aureus Plasmid PI258cadA gene results from cadmium efflux ATPase.” J. of Iochemistry, 86, 3544-3548.
5- Silver, S., and Phung, L. (1996). “Bacterial heavy metal resistance new surprises.” J. of Annu. Rev. Microbial, 50, 753-769.
6- Mahvi, A.H. (2008). “Cadmium biosorption from wastewater by ulmus leaves and their Ash.” European J. of Scientific Research, 23(2), 197-203.
7- Sari, A., and Tuzen, M. (2008). “Biosorption of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution by red algae (Ceramium virgatum): Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.” J. of Hazard. Mater., 157, 448-454.
8- Sheng, P.X., Ting, Y.P., Chen, J.P., and Hong, L. (2004). “Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms.” J. of Colloid Interf. Sci., 275, 131-141.
9- Raras, A.G. (1995). “Biological and biotechnological waste management in material processing.” J. of Mineral. Metals. Mater. Soc., 47, 56-63.
10- Chovanova, K., Sladekova, D., Kemet, V., Proksova, M., Harichova, J., Puskarova, A., Pole, B., and Ferianc, P. (2004). “Identification and characterization of eight cadmium resistant bacterial isolates from a cadmium-contaminated sewage sludge.” J. of Biologia Bratislava, 59(6), 817-827.
11- Hetzer, A., Daughney, J.C., and Morgan, H.H. (2006). “Cadmium ion biosorption by the thermophilic bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and G.thermofatenulatus.” J. of Applied and Enviromental Microbiology, 72(6), 4020-4027.
12- Khorramabadi, Gh., Darvishi, R., and Jorfi, S. (2010). “Cd(II) Adsorption using waste sluge from a municipal wastewater treatment system.” J. of water and Wastewater, 1, 57-62. (In Persian)
13- Ozdemir, G., Ceyhan, N., Ozturk, T., Akirmak, F., and Cesar, T. (2004). “Biosorption of chromium (VI), cadmium (II), copper (II) by Pantoea sp.TEM18.” J. of Chemical Engineering, 102, 249-253.
14- Ghorabani, F., and Younesi, H. (2009). “Biosorption of cadmium (II) ions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass from aqueous solutions.” J of Water and Wastewater, 68, 33-39. (In Persian)
15- Fourest, E., and Roux, J.C. (1992). “Heavy metal biosorption by fungal mycelial by-products: Mechanisms and influence of pH.” J. of Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 37, 399-403.
16- Li, Z., and Yuan, H. (2006). “Characterization of cadmium removal by Rhodotorula sp. Y11.” J. of Appl Microbiol Biotechnol., 73, 458-463.
17- Göksungur, Y., Üren, S., and Güvenc, U. (2005). “Biosorption of cadmium and lead ions by ethanol treated waste baker’s yeast biomass.” J. of Bioresour. Technol., 96,103-109.
18- Donmez, G.C., Aksu, Z., Ozturk, A., and Kutsal, T. (1999). “A comparative study on heavy metal biosorption characteristics some algae.” J. of Process Biochem, 34, 885-892.
19- Farazmand, A., Kazemi, M.A., Gheaisari, A., and Orumieh, H.R. (2001). “Biological treatment of heavy metal by sulfat reducing bacteria.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 37, 16-24. (In Persian)