Comparison of Active Carbon, Sawdust, Almond Shell and Hazelnut Shell Absorbent in Removal of Nickel from Aqueous Environment

Document Type : Research Paper



The most important environmental pollutants are heavy metals in industrial wastewater effluents. Nickel is one of the toxic heavy metals which its high concentration causes skin allergy, heart disease and various cancers. So removal of this element from industrial effluent is of prime concern and necessary. The main purpose of this study is to compare kinetics and isotherms of nickel uptake by activated carbon (AC), sawdust (SD), hazelnut shell (SH) and almond shells (AH). Adsorbents are initially prepared to remove nickel from solutions with concentrations 2.5 to 125 mg/l. pH test results showed that maximum absorption using AC, SH, SD and AH obtained at pH 6, 6, 6 and 7 respectively. Kinetics experiments showed that maximum absorption equilibrium time at concentration of 5 mg/l of AC, SH, SD and AH occur at 60, 75, 120 and 150 minutes respectively. Kinetic models fitting results showed that for sawdust and hazelnut shells, Lagergern model and for activated carbon and peanut shell Ho et al. model are suitable and have the lowest error and highest correlation coefficient at 95 percent confidence level. The results also revealed that rate of Nickel adsorption follows this order: AH <SD <SH <AC. Adsorption isotherms studies showed that according to error factor and correlation coefficient for all of the adsorbents, Rdlych Peterson and Langmuir isotherms described data better than the others. The results also showed that equilibrium time is an exponential function of the absorption capacity.


1- Shahmohammadi, Z. (2010). “Lead removal from aqueous solutions using low-cost adsorbents.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 75, 45-50. (In Persian)
2- Ramakrishnan, K. (1996). Dye removal using peat, American Dyestuff Reporter, Saskatchewan, Canada.
3- Yeddou, N., and Bensmaili, A. (2005). “kinetic models for the sorption of dye from aqueous solution by clay-wood sawdust mixture.” J. of Desalination, 185, 499-508.
4- Dorris, K.L., Yu, B., Shukla, S.S., Zhang, Y., and Shukla, A. (2000). “The removal of heavy metal from aqueous solutions by sawdust adsorption-removal of copper.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 80, 33-42.
5- Goyer, R. (1991). “Toxic effects of metals.” Amdur, M.O., Doull, J.D., and Klaassen, C.D. (Eds.) Casarett and doulls toxicology, 4th Ed., Pergamon Press, New York.
6- Tavakoli, M., and Tabatabaee, M. (1998). “Irrigation with treated wastewater.” Conference Proceedings Environmental Aspects of Wastewater Use in Irrigation, 28, 1-26. (In Persian)
7- dos Santos, W.L., dos Santos, C.M.M., Costa, J.L.O., Andrade, H.M.C., and Ferreira, S.L.C. (2004). “Multivariate optimization and validation studies in on-line pre-concentration system for lead determination in drinking water and saline waste from oil refinery.” J. of Microchem, 77, 123-129.
8- Gunay, A., Arslankaya, E., and Tosun, I. (2007). “Lead removal from aqueous solution by tatural and pretreated clinoptilolite: Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 146, 362-371.
9- Santelli, R.E., Bezerra, M.A., SantAna, O.D., Cassella, R.J., and Ferreira, S.L.C. (2006). “Multivariate technique for optimization of digestion procedure by focussed microwave system for determination of Mn, Zn and Fe in food samples using FAAS.” J. of Talanta, 68, 1083-1088.
10- Kumar, U. (2006). “Agricultural products and by-products as low cost adsorbent for heavy metal removal from water and wastewater: A review.” J. of Scientific Research and Essay, 1(2), 33-37.
11- Asadi, F., Shariatmadari, H., and Mirghaffari, N. (2008). “Modification of rice hull and sawdust sorptive characteristics for remove heavy metals from synthetic solutions and wastewater.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 154, 451-458.
12- Dorris, K.L., Yu, B., Zhang, Y., Shukla, S.S., and Shukla, A. (2000). “The removal of heavy metal from aqueous solutions by sawdust adsorption-removal of copper.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 80, 33-42.
13- Ewecharoen, A., Thiravetyan, P., and Nakbanpote, W. (2008). “Comparison of nickel adsorption from electroplating rinse water by coir pith and modified coir pith.” J. of Chemical Engineering, 137, 181-188.
14- Sen Gupta, B.M., Curran, S., and Hasan, T.K. (2009). “Ghosh, adsorption characteristics of Cu and Ni on Irish peat moss.” J. of Environ. Manage., 90, 954-960.
15- Kobya, M. (2004). “Removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto hazelnut shell activated carbon: Kinetic and equilibrium studies.” J. of Biores Technol, 91, 317-321.
16- Demirbas, E., Kobya, M., Oncel, S., and Sencan, S. (2002). “Removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto hazelnut shell activated carbon: Equilibrium studies.” J. of Biores. Technol., 84, 291-293.
17- Bulut, Y., and Tez, Z. (2007). “Adsorption studies on ground shells of hazelnut and almond.” J. of Hazardous Material, 149, 35- 41.
18- Kazemi pour, M., Ansari, M., Tajrobehkar, S., Majdzade, M., and Kermani, H. (2008). “Removal of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper from industrial wastewater by carbon developed from walnut, hazelnut, almond, pistachio shell and apricot ston.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 150, 322-327.
19- Semerjian, L. (2009). “Equilibrium and kinetics of cadmium adsorption from aqueous solutions using untreated pinus halepensis sawdust.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 156, 245-257.
20- Hasar, H. (2003). “Adsorption of nickel (II) from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from almond husk.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 97, 49-57.
21- Saeedi, M., Jamshidi, A., and Bayat, J. (2009). “Water-soluble cadmium absorbed by the charcoal made from walnut and almond shells and comparison with granular activated carbon.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 70, 16-22. (In Persian)
22- Memon, S.Q., Memon, N., Khuhawar, M.Y., and Bhanger, M. I. (2007). “Sawdust-A green and economical sorbent for the removal of cadmium(II) ions.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 139, 116-121.
23- Babel, S., and Kurniawan, T.A. (2003). “A research study on Cr (VI) removal from contaminated wastewater using natural zeolite.” J. of Ion Exchange, 14, 289-292.
24- Aydin, H., Bulut, Y., and Yerlikaya, C. (2008). “Removal of copper (II) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto low- cost adsorbents.” J. of Environment Management, 87, 37-45.
25- Gregg, S.J., and Sing, K.S.W. (1982). The physical adsorption of gases by nonporous solids: The type II isotherm, in adsorption, surface area and porosity, Academic Press, London.
26- Hequet, E., Abidi, N., and Gourlot, J.P. (1998). “Application of methylene blue adsorption to cotton fiber specific surface area measurement: Part 1 methodology.” J. of Cotton Science, 2, 164-173.
27- Low, M.J.D. (1960). “Kinetics of chemisorption of gases on solids.” J. of Chem. Rev., 60, 267-312.
28- Pahlavanzadeh, H., Keshtkarb, A.R., Safdarib, J., and Abadi, Z. (2010). “Biosorption of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by brown algae: Equilibrium, dynamic and thermodynamic studies.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 175,
29- Crini, G., and Badot, P.M. (2008). “Application of chitosan, a natural aminopolysaccharide, for dye removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption processes using batch studies: A review of recent literature.” J. of Prog. Polym. Sci., 33, 399-447.
30- Lagergren, S. (1898). “About the theory so-called adsorption of soluble substances.” J. of Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, 24(4), 1-39.
31- Ho, Y.S., Wase, D.A., and Forster, C.F. (1996). “Kinetic studies of competitive heavy metal adsorption by sphagnum moss peat.” J. of Environment Technology, 17, 71-77.
32- El-Halwany, M.M. (2010). “Study of adsorption isotherms and kinetic models for methylene blue adsorption on activated carbon developed from Egyptian rice hull (part II).” J. of Desalination, 250, 208-213.
33- Langmuir, I. (1916). “The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids.” J. of Am. Chem. Soc., 38, 2221-2295.
34- Freundlich, H.M. (1906). “Uber die adsorption in lasungen.” J. of Z. Phys. Chem., 57, 385-470.
35- Box, G.E.P., Hunter, W.G., and Hunter, J.S. (1997). Statistics for Experimenters, Wiley, New York.
36- Royer, B., Cardoso, N., Lima, E., Vaghetti, J., Simon, N., Calvete, T., and Veses, R. (2009). “Applications of Brazilian pine-fruit shell in natural and carbonized forms as adsorbents to removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions-kinetic and equilibrium study.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 164, 1213-1222.
37- Habib, A., Islam, N., Islam, A., and Shafiqul Alam, A.M. (2007). “Removal of copper from aqueous solution using orange peel, sawdust and bagasse.” pak. J. of Anal. Environ. Chem., 8(1-2), 21-25.
38- Pehlivan, E., and Altun, T. (2008). “Biosorption of chromium (VI) ion from aqueous solutions using walnut, hazelnut and almond shell.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 155, 378-384.
39- Jamali Armandi, H., and Shahmohammadi, Z. (2010). “Concentration effect on the efficiency of absorption of lead time and the balance of the water environment by the shell grain.” J. of Environmental Science and Technology, 12(1), 31.
40- Shahmohammadi, Z., and Jamali armandi, H. (2010). “Convergence time of balance and efficiency of lead absorption by grain crust and low concentrations of active carbon.” J. of Environmental Studies, 54, 19-21.
(In Persian)
41- Taffarel, S.R., and Rubio, J. (2009). “On the removal of Mn+2 ions by adsorption onto natural and activated Chilean zeolites.” J. of Minerals Engineering, 22, 336-343.
42- Bozi, C., Stankovi, C., Gorgievski, M., Bogdanovi, C., and Kovacevi, R. (2009).” Adsorption of heavy metal ions by sawdust of deciduous trees.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 171, 684-692.
43- Cristina, Q., Zélia, R., Bruna, S., Bruna, F., Hugo, F., and Teresa, T. (2009). “Removal of Cd (II), Cr (VI), Fe (III) and Ni (II) from aqueous solutions by an E. colibiofilm supported on kaolin.” J. of Chemical Engineering, 149, 319-324.
44- Shim, J., Park, S., and Ryu, S.( 2001). “Effect of modification with HNO3 and NaOH by pitch-based activated carbon fibers.” J. of Carbon, 39, 1635-1642.
45- Annadurai, A., Juang, R., and Lee, D. (2002). “Adsorption of heavy metals from water using banana and orange peels.” J. of Water Sci. Technol., 47(1), 185-190.
46- Gupta, V.K., Jain, C.K., Ali, I., Shahram, M., and Saini, V.K. (2003). “Removal of cadmium and nickel from wastewater using bagasse fly ash-a sugar industry waste.” J. of Water Research, 37(16), 4038-4044.