Assessment of Residential Water Conservation due to Using Low-Flow Fixtures

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology

2 Professor of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology

3 Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology


Increasing population and socioeconomic development have led to increased urban water demand. Residential use forms the principal portion of urban water consumption. One of the most effective residential water conservation measures is using low-flow fixtures and devices designed for this purpose. In this paper, conservation results of using low-flow fixtures including low-flow showerheads and faucet aerators are evaluated in the city of Kashan. For this purpose, two groups of 40 households were randomly selected as experimental and control groups. The fixtures were installed in the houses of the experimental group and water consumption was measured over one month. Results indicate that retrofitting with these fixtures reduces residential water consumption by about 22 percent. Projections of Kashan’s future water demand and supply indicate that using these fixtures by Kashan residents can delay the need for new water supply projects by up to 6 years. Cost-benefit ratio of this conservation measure for Kashan is estimated to be 5.8 to 1. Finally, user satisfaction of retrofitting with these fixtures is evaluated.


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