Optimal Groundwater Monitoring Network Design Using the Entropy Theory

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran

2 Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering and Affiliate Member of Center of Excellence for Infrastructural Engineering and Management, University of Tehran


This paper presents a methodology for optimal design of groundwater monitoring networks using the criteria of maximizing information and minimizing monitoring cost. The measure of Transinformation in the Discrete Entropy Theory is used for quantifying the efficiency of the monitoring network. The existing uncertainty in the Transinformation-Distance (T-D) curve is incorporated using the fuzzy set theory. The fuzzy T-D curve is then used in a multi-objective GA-based optimization model, which provides the best locations for monitoring stations. The proposed methodology is applied to groundwater resources in the southern part of Tehran, Iran. The results show the applicability and the efficiency of the model for the optimal design of groundwater monitoring systems.


1- Shannon, C. E. (1948). “A mathematical theory of communication.” Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379-423.
2- Singh, V. P. )1997(.“The use of entropy in hydrology and water resources.” Hydrological Processes,11, 587-626.
3- Uslu, O., and Tanriover, A. (1979). “Measuring the information content of hydrological process.” Proc., The First National Congress on Hydrology, Istanbul, 473- 443.
4- Harmancioglu, N. B. (1981). “Measuring the information content of hydrological processes by the entropy concept.” J. Civil Engineering, 13, 88-92.
5- Krastanovic, P. F., and Singh, V. P. (1992). “Evaluation of rainfall networks using entropy.” Water Resource Management, 6, 295-314.
6- Yang, Y., and Burn, D. )1994(. “An entropy approach to data collection network design.” Journal of Hydrology, 157, 307-324.
7- Ozkul, S., Harmancioglu, N. B., and Singh, V. P. (2000). “Entropy-based assessment of water quality monitoring networks.” J. Hydrology Eng., 5(1), 90-100.
8- Mogheir, Y., and Singh, V. P. (2002). “Application of information theory to groundwater quality montoring system.” Water Resources Management, 16(1), 37-49.
9- Husain, T. (1989). “Hydrologic uncertainty measure and network design.” Water Resources Bulletin, 25(3), 527-534.
10- Bueso, M. C., Angulo, J. M., Cruz-Sanjulian, J., and Carcia-Arostegui, J. L. (1999). “Optimal spatial sampling design in a multivariate framework.” Mathematical Geology, 31(5), 507-525.
11- Karamouz, M., Khajehzadeh Nokhandan, A., and Kerachian, R. (2006). “Design of river water quality monitoring networks using an entropy based approach: a case study.” Proc., The 2006 World Water and Environmental Resources Congress, Nebraska, USA.
12- Mogheir, Y., and Singh, V. P. (2003). “Specification of information needs for groundwater management planning in developing country.” Groundwater Hydrology, 2, 3-20.
13- Mogheir, Y., and Lima, J. L. M. P., and Singh, V. P. (2004). “‍‍‍Characterizing the special variability of groundwater quality using the entropy theory.” Hydrological Process,18, 2165-2179.
14- معصومی، ف، و کراچیان، ر. (1385). ارزیابی سامانه‌های پایش کیفی منابع آب زیرزمینی با کاربرد تئوری آنتروپی گسسته. دومین کنفرانس مدیریت منابع آب ایران، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان.
15- Akter, T., and Simonovic, S. P. (2004). “Modeling uncertainties in short-term reservoir operation using fuzzy sets and a genetic algorithm.” Hydrological Science, 49(6), 1081-1097.