Estimation of Kermanshah Domestic Wastewater Characteristics Based on Socio-economic Variables

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Environmental Health Engineering, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

2 Assistant Professor of Medical Physics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

3 Assistant Professor of Medical Biostatistics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

4 Senior Water & Wastewater Engineer, Kermanshah Provincial Water and Wastewater Company


A survey of wastewater characteristics in Kermanshah City was conducted to evaluate the range of pollutant ratios (BOD, SS, N, and P, to COD) that can be used to assess the robustness of wastewater management systems in terms of sustainability. The method of study is descriptive and analytical. Data were collected from three districts of the city that were socio-economically different (Ellaheiah, Taavon and Kasra) and considered to be true representatives of the population. Average values of BOD5/COD (0.58, 0.55 and 0.56 mg/mg); SS/COD (0.633, 0.619, 0.636); N/COD (0.09, 0.078 and 0.076); and P/COD (0.016, 0.015 and 0.018) were obtained from the three districts of the city,  Ellaheiah, Taavon and Kasra, respectively. The alkalinity of the wastewater was 2.5 times stronger than normal wastewater. The results indicate that despite seemingly different values for the parameters measured, no significant differences exist among samples from the three study districts.  Based on BOD and COD, the samples seem to range from medium to strong. BOD/COD ratios are almost satisfactory (0.5 -0.6) in the sense that more than 0.55% of carbonaceous material is biodegradable. Regarding TKN, total phosphorous concentration is in the range of medium wastewaters. Phosphorous concentration in the wastewater from Kasra was significantly higher than those from the other two districts.


1- Tchobanoglous, G., and Burton, F.L. (1991). "Wastewater engineering: treatment, disposal and reuse." Third ed. McGraw-Hill, International Editions, 47-119.
2- Bitton, G. (1999). "Wastewater microbiology." Second ed. Wiley- Liss.,169-207.
3- Mays, L. W. (1998 ). "Water resources handbook." C.H.I.P.S., Weimar, Texas. 1568p.
4- Shulan, XU, and Bengt, H. (1996). " Experience in wastewater characterization and model calibration for the activated sludge." J.Water Sci. Technol., 33(12), 89-98.
5- Amaral, A. L., Rodrigues, S., Mota, M., and Ferreira, E.C.(2002). "Morphological characterization of biomass in wastewater treatment using partial least squares." Centro de Engenhana Biológica Univesidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal. 4710-057.
6- Henze, M.(1992). "Characterization of wastewater for modeling of activated sludge processes." J.Water Sci, Technol., 25(6),1-15.
7- Orhon, D., Tasli, R., and Sözen, S.(1999). "Experimental basis of activated sludge treatment for industrial wastewaters, the state of the art." J.Water Sci. Technol., 40(1), 1-11.
8- Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F., and Stensel, D.(2003). "Wastewater engineering: treatment, disposal and reuse." Forth ed., Metcalf and Eddy., McGraw-Hill Inc.
9- Arslan, A., and Aberk, S. (2003). "Characterization and biological treataibility of Izmit industrial and domestic wastewater treatment plant." Water SA, (4) 29.
10- Ekama, G. A., Dold, P.L., and Marais, G.V.R.(1986). "Procedures for determining influent COD fraction and the maximum specific growth rate of heterotrophs in activated sludge systems." J.Water Sci. Technol., 18, 91-114.
11- Germili, F., Orhon, D., and Artan, N.(1991). "Assessment of  the initial inert soluble COD in industrial wastewaters." J.Water Sci. Technol., 23, 1077-1086.
12- Orhon, D., Artan, N., and Ates, E.(1994). "A description of three methods for the determination of the initial inert particulate chemical oxygen demand of wastewater. " J. Chem. Biotechnol., 61,73-80.
13- Orhon, D., Karahan, Ö, and Sözen, S.(1999). "The effect of residual microbial products on the experimental assessment of the particulate inert COD fractionation of domestic wastewaters."
J. Environ. Pollut., 95(2), 191-204.
14- Ince, O., Germirli., B. F., Kasapgil, B., and Anderson, G. K.(1998). "Experimental determination of the inert soluble COD  fraction of a brewery wastewater under anaerobic conditions." J.Environ. Technol., 19,437-442.
15- Pons, M. N., Spanjers, H., Baetens, D., Nowak, O., Gillot, S., Nouwen, J., and Schuttinga, N.(2004). "Wastewater characteristics in Europe-a survey. " Official publication of the European water association (EWA), 1-10.
16- Gray, S. R., and Beeker, N. S. C.(2002). "Contaminant flows in urban residential water systems." J.Urban Water, 4, 331-346.
17- Roeleveld, P.J., and Van Loosdrecht, M. C. (2002). "Experience with guidelines for wastewater characterisation in the Netherlands." J.Water Sci. Technol., 45(6), 77-87.
18- U.S. EPA. (1987). "The cause and control of activated sludge bulking and foaming." Report No. EPA/ 625/ 8-87/012 .U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH., 92 p.
19- U.S. EPA. (1987). "Design manual: phosphorus removal. "Report No. EPA/ 625/ 1-87/001.U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH., 102P.
20- American Public Health Association. (1995). "Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater." Nineteenth ed. American Public Association, Washington, D.C.
21- Campose, H. M., and Sperling, M. V. (1996). "Estimation of domestic wastewater  characteristics in developing country based on socio-economic variables." J.Water Sci. Technol.,
34(3-4), 71-77.
22- Ekama, G. A., Marais, G.V.R., Slebritz, I. P., Pitman, A. R., Keay, G. F.P., Buchman, L., Gerber, A., and Smllen, M.(1984). "Theory, design and operation of nutrient removal in activated sludge process." Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa.