Effect of Potassium Permanganate on Effectiveness of Chitosan in Removing of Turbidity and Fecal Coliforms from Wastewater

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assist. Prof. of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran

2 Fauclty Member of Environmental Health Eng., Aradan Fauclty of Health and Paramedical, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan

3 Ph.D. Student of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran


Chitosan, as a coagulant is used in water and wastewater treatment. It has similar performance in comparison with other conventional coagulants, and doesn’t have any disadvantages of them. However, its bactericidal property is lower than the metal based coagulants. In this study the potential synergistic effect of potassium permanganate, as a powerful oxidant, on the Chitosan fecal coliforms inactivation and turbidity removal has been investigated. Synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing tap water with Bentonite and adding pure culture of fecal coliforms that provided by biological laboratory of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. After preparing synthetic samples of the wastewater and determining its turbidity and fecal coliforms concentration, various doses of Chitosan and Potassium Permanganate individually and in combination with each other, were injected to the samples. Afterwards supernatant of jar reactors were investigated for turbidity and fecal coliforms removal. Simultaneous use Chitosan and potassium permanganate has higher removal efficiency than the individual using of them. Highest applied combined dose (3 mg / L  Chitosan and 1.5  mg / L  potassium permanganate) reduced fecal coliform to a level less than 100 MPN/100mL , which is  equivalent 4 log-inactivation of fecal coliforms. Simultaneous use of Chitosan and potassium permanganate in tertiary treatment of wastewater can led to produce lower turbidity, as well as higher microbial quality in the effluent, which can reduce the amount of required disinfectant, consequently disinfection by products formation lowered very much.


1- Murcott, S.E., and Donald, R. F. (1996). Method of drinking water treatment with natural cationic polymers, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States.
2- Adin, A., and Asano, T. (1998). “The role of physical-chemical treatment in wastewater reclamation and reuse.” Water Science and Technology, 37(10), 79-90.
3- Veschetti, E., Cutilli, D., Bonadonna, L., Briancesco, R., Martini, C., Cecchini, G., Anastasi, P., and Ottaviani, M. (2003). “Pilot-plant comparative study of peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite wastewater disinfection.” Water Research, 37(1), 78-94.
4- Abdolah Zadeh, M., Torabian, A., and Hassani, A.H. (2009). “Comparison of the performance of Poly Aluminum Chloride (PACl), Ferric Chloride (FeCl3), in turbidity and organic matter removal.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 70, 23-31.(In Persian)
5- Pan, J.R.S, Huang, C., Chen, S., and Chung, Y.C. (1999). “Evaluation of a modified chitosan biopolymer for coagulation of colloidal particles.” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 147, 359-364.
6- Benassi, J.C., Laus, R., Geremias, R., Lima, P.L, Menezes, C. T., Laranjeira, M.C., Wilhelm-Filho, D., Favere V.T., and Pedrosa, R.C. (2006).” Evaluation of remediation of coal mining wastewater by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers.” Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 51(4), 633-640.
7- Chung, Y.C. (2006). “Improvement of aquaculture wastewater using chitosan of different degrees of deacetylation.” Environ. Technol., 27, 1199-1208.
8- Huang, C., Chen, S., and Ruhsing Pan, J. (2000). “Optimal condition for modification of chitosan: A biopolymer for coagulation of colloidal particles.” Water Research, 34, 1057-1062.
9- Chung, Y.C., Li, Y.H., and Chen, C.C. (2005). “Pollutant removal from aquaculture wastewater using the biopolymer chitosan at different molecular weights.” J. of Environ Sci. Health A Tox. Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng., 40, 1775-1790.
10- Divakaran, R., and Pillai, V.N. (2002). “Flocculation of river silt using chitosan.” Water Research, 36, 2414-2418.
11- Mehdinejad, M.H., Bina, B., Nikaeen, M., and Movahedian Attar, H.M. (2009). “Effectiveness of chitosan as natural coagulant aid in removal of turbidity and bacteria from turbid waters.” J. of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 7, 845-850.
12- Gamage, A., and Shahidi, F. (2007). “Use of chitosan for the removal of metal ion contaminants and proteins from water.” J. of Food Chemistry, 104, 989-996.
13- Bina, B., Mehdinejad, M. H., Nikaeen, M., and Movahedian Attar, H. (2009) “Effectiveness of chitosan as natural coagulant aid in removal of turbidity and bacteria from turbid waters.” Iran. J. of Environ. Health. Sci. Eng., 6, 247-252.
14- U.S. EPA. (1999). Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance Manual, EPA. 815-R, 1999-014-99. p. 5.1-5.15, USA.
15- Guibai, M. L., and Yongxin, F.Ch. (1992). “Study on the efficiency of permanganate as a coagulation aid.” China Water and Wastewater, 4, 203-218.
16- Kawamura, S. (2000). Integrated design and operation of water treatment facilities, 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York.
17- Jiang, J. Q., Wang, S., and Panagoulopoulos, A. (2007). “The role of potassium ferrate (VI) in the inactivation of escherichia coli and in the reduction of COD for water remediation.” Desalination, 210, 266-273.
18- Huang, C., and Chen, Y. (1996). “Coagulation of colloidal particles in water by chitosan.” J. of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 66, 227-232.
19- Eaton, A. D., Clesceri, L. S., Rice, W. E., and Greenberg, A. E. (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st  Ed., American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.
20- Brown, T.J., and Emelko, M.B. (2009). “Chitosan and metal salt coagulant impacts on cryptosporidium and microsphere removal by filtration.” Water Research, 43, 331-338.
21- Rizzo, L., Di Gennaro,  A., Gallo, M., and Belgiorno, V. (2008). “Coagulation/chlorination of surface water: A comparison between chitosan and metal salts.” Separation and Purification Technology, 62, 79-85.