Effect of Recirculation on Leachate Quality and Biogas Production Rate in Landfills

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD. Student, Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Prof., Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran Medical Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


The present study investigates the effects of recirculation on the leachate pollutions and biogas production in a waste processing in the west of Tehran province, Iran. Recirculation is considered as an effective way in leachate pollutants reduction and biogas production rate increase. For this purpose, a trench with a size of 3*3*2.5 m was dug, and one pipe was applied for sampling.  Parameters were examined, including the chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total suspended solids, ammonium, phosphate, copper, iron, cadmium, lead, and zinc. To evaluate the production of gases, the periodical measurements of CH4, H2S, and SO2 were performed. Moreover, biogas production in the trench was measured in seven repetitions. Then, leachate recirculation in the landfill was performed at the leachate volume ratio of 20:1, 10:1, 5:1, and 40:1. Comparison of the results indicated that the recirculation volume ratio of 1:20 maximized the reduction of pollutants. At this volume ratio, the maximum productions of CH4, H2S, and SO2 were obtained to be 50127 ppm, 21.12 ppm, and 0.23 ppm, respectively. The recirculation at the ratio of 20:1 reduced COD, BOD, ammonium, phosphate, TSS, and turbidity by 1650 mg/L (26%), 889 mg/L (20%), 1650 mg/L (26%), 10 mg/L (23%), 63 mg/L (11%), and 11.2 NTU (23%), respectively. Although the effects of recirculation on the reduction of pollutants, particularly organic ones, were found to be satisfactory, complementary treatment is required for the secondary utilization of wastewater.


Aguilar-Virgen, Q., Taboada-González, P., Ojeda-Benítez, S. & Cruz-Sotelo, S. 2014. Power generation with biogas from municipal solid waste: prediction of gas generation with in situ parameters. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 30, 412-419.
Bae, W., Kim, S., Lee, J. & Chung, J. 2019. Effect of leachate circulation with ex situ nitrification on waste decomposition and nitrogen removal for early stabilization of fresh refuse landfill. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 371, 721-727.
Białowiec, A., Wojnowska-Baryła, I. & Randerson, P. 2011. Evapo-Transpiration in Ecological Engineering. in Labedzki, L. Evapotranspiration, InTech Pub., Rijeka, Croatia.
Billa, L. & Pradhan, B. 2013. GIS modeling for selection of a transfer station site for residential solid waste separation and recycling. Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology, 21(2), 487-498.
Biswas, J., Chowdhury, R. & Bhattacharya, P. 2006. Kinetic studies of biogas generation using municipal waste as feed stock. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 38, 493-503.
Borja, R., Rincón, B., Raposo, F., Alba, J. & Martın, A. 2003. Kinetics of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of the two-phase olive mill solid waste. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 15, 139-145.
Cesaro, A. & Belgiorno, V. 2014. Pretreatment methods to improve anaerobic biodegradability of organic municipal solid waste fractions. Chemical Engineering Journal, 240, 24-37.
Converti, A., Borghi, A. D., Arni, S. & Molinari, F. 1999. Linearized kinetic models for the simulation of the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of pre‐hydrolyzed woody wastes. Chemical Engineering and Technology: Industrial ChemistryPlant EquipmentProcess EngineeringBiotechnology, 22(5), 429-437.
El-Mashad, H. M. & Zhang, R. 2010. Biogas production from co-digestion of dairy manure and food waste. Bioresource Technology, 101, 4021-4028.
Fdez-Güelfo, L., Álvarez-Gallego, C., Sales, D. & García, L. R. 2012. Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: methane production modeling. Waste Management, 32, 382-388.
Heydarian, H., Azimian, M. & Mirzaie, A. 2016. Simulating and evaluating the effects of leachate recycling operation on landfills on a pilot scale. The 2nd Conference of Engineering Science and Environmental Technology, University of Tehran. Tehran. Iran. COI: CESET02-062. (In Persian)
Iran Environmental Protection Organization. 1996. Wastewater Emission Standards. Regulations for Preventing Water. IEPO, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Ishii, K. & Furuichi, T. 2013. Estimation of methane emission rate changes using age-defined waste in a landfill site. Waste Management, 33, 1861-1869.
Lema, J., Mendez, R. & Blazquez, R. 1988. Characteristics of landfill leachates and alternatives for their treatment: a review. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 40, 223-250.
Li, Q., Qiao, W., Wang, X., Takayanagi, K., Shofie, M. & Li, Y. Y. 2015. Kinetic characterization of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion for coffee grounds and waste activated sludge. Waste Management, 36, 77-85.
Linke, B. 2006. Kinetic study of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of solid wastes from potato processing. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30, 892-896.
Manna, L., Zanetti, M. & Genon, G. 1999. Modeling biogas production at landfill site. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 26, 1-14.
Markowski, M., Białobrzewski, I., Zieliński, M., Dębowski, M. & Krzemieniewski, M. 2014. Optimizing low-temperature biogas production from biomass by anaerobic digestion. Renewable Energy, 69, 219-225.
McDougall, F. R., White, P. R., Franke, M. & Hindle, P. 2008. Integrated Solid Waste Management: A Life Cycle Inventory, John Wiley & Sons. London, UK.
Meima, J., Naranjo, N. M. & Haarstrick, A. 2008. Sensitivity analysis and literature review of parameters controlling local biodegradation processes in municipal solid waste landfills. Waste Management, 28, 904-918.
Miao, L., Yang, G., Tao, T. & Peng, Y. 2019. Recent advances in nitrogen removal from landfill leachate using biological treatments–a review. Journal of Environmental Management, 235, 178-185.
Mohseni, N., Omrani, G. & Harati. S. A. 2019. Estimating the potential of methane gas production from landfills in big cities of Iran (Tehran, Shiraz, Mashhad, Esfahan and Karaj). Journal of Sustainability, Development and Environment, 1(2), 35-49. (In Persian)
Plocoste, T., Jacoby-Koaly, S., Petit, R. & Roussas, A. 2016. Estimation of methane emission from a waste dome in tropical insular area. International Journal of Waste Resources, 6(2),1000211.
Rasapoor, M., Young, B., Brar, R. & Baroutian, S. 2020. Improving biogas generation from aged landfill waste using moisture adjustment and neutral red additive case study: Hampton Downs’s landfill site. Energy Conversion and Management, 216, 112947.
Scaglia, B., Confalonieri, R., D’imporzano, G. & Adani, F. 2010. Estimating biogas production of biologically treated municipal solid waste. Bioresource Technology, 101, 945-952.
Syaichurrozi, I. & Sumardiono, S. 2013. Predicting kinetic model of biogas production and biodegradability organic materials: biogas production from vinasse at variation of COD/N ratio. Bioresource Technology, 149, 390-397.
Tabet, K., Moulin, P., Vilomet, J., Amberto, A. & Charbit, F. 2002. Purification of landfill leachate with membrane processes: preliminary studies for an industrial plant. Separation Science and Technology, 37, 1041-1063.
Thorvat, A., Shaha, S. & Varur, S. 2017. An experimental study of effect of recirculation on leachate characteristics through landfill biofilter. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 10(1), 351-357.
Trebouet, D., Schlumpf, J., Jaouen, P. & Quemeneur, F. 2001. Stabilized landfill leachate treatment by combined physicochemical–nanofiltration processes. Water Research, 35, 2935-2942.
Wable, O., Jousset, M., Courant, P. & Duguet, J. 1993. Oxidation of landfill leachates by ozone and hydrogen peroxide: a French example. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ozone-Oxidation Methods for Water and Wastewater Treatment, Berlin, Germany, 26-28.
Wang, J., Xia, F. F., Bai, Y., Fang, C. R., Shen, D. S. & He, R. 2011. Methane oxidation in landfill waste biocover soil: kinetics and sensitivity to ambient conditions. Waste Management, 31, 864-870.