Performance Comparison of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Active ‎Carbon Derived from Coconut Shells for ‎Naphthalene Adsorption in the Aquatic Solution

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc Graduate Student, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Prof., Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


One of the hazardous compounds for humans and the environment is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are the naphthalene of the precursor of two-ring aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds are carcinogenic and toxic, they cause anemia and damage to the retina and are also toxic to plants and aquatic animals, these compounds have been identified as priority pollutants by the World Health Organization, yet these compounds are difficult to remove by biological methods. This study was performed in batch in vitro where the effect of parameters such as retention time 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, concentration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon from coconut skin 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 2 g/L), solution concentration 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 50 and 100 mg/L and pH 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 the concentration of 10 mg/L naphthalene solution in naphthalene removal was investigated. Experimental data of adsorption equilibrium with different Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models are evaluated and analyzed with adsorption kinetics by comparing R2 coefficient of analysis and analyzed by excel software. Maximum naphthalene adsorption on both carbon nanotubes and activated carbon nanotube adsorbent at initial concentration of 10 mg/L naphthalene and adsorbent dose equal to 0.75 g/L at pH=7 is an appropriate time to achieve maximum naphthalene adsorption;the balance mode is 90 minutes. The adsorption mechanism is consistent in both adsorbents of Langmuir adsorption isotherm and their coefficient of determination in carbon nanotubes is (R²=0.9589) and in coconut shell activated carbon (R²=0.9319). and both adsorbents are from adsorption synthetics second-degree followers. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon from coconut skin due to their small size, high cross-sectional area as a result of high reactivity, as an adsorbent for removal of naphthalene from water. And the nanotube has a higher absorption than activated carbon from the coconut skin, so it is considered as a better adsorbent because of its affordability and availability.


Abouli, M., Pour Khabbaz, H. & Yosefan, N. 2018. Effect of activated carbon adsorbent on removal of hydrocarbons in petroleum effluent. The 4th International Conference on Environmental Planning and Management. University of Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Bina, B., Pourzamani, H., Rashidi, A. & Amin, M. M. 2012. Ethylbenzene removal by carbon nanotubes from aqueous solution. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 817187. (In Persian)
Chen, G. C., Shan, X. Q., Wang, Y. S., Wen, B., Pei, Z. G., Xie, Y. N., et al. 2009. Adsorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by multi-walled carbon nanotubes as affected by Cu(II). Water Research, 43(9), 2409-2418.
Ehrampoush, M., H. Pourzamani, H. R. & Pezashki Najafabadi, M. 2012. Benzene removal from aqueous solution by surface modified carbon nanotubes using calcium hypochlorite. Journal of Health System Research, 8(6), 1058-1067. (In Persian)
Fazlollahi, S., Hassani, A. H., Borghei & Pourzamani, H. 2016. Investigation of isotherm and kinetics of naphthalene adsorption from aqueous solutions by multiwall carbon nanotubes. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, 24, 162-173. (In Persian)
Gotovac, S., Hattori, Y., Noguchi, D., Miyamoto, J., Kanamaru, M., Utsumi, S., et al. 2006. Phenanthrene adsorption from solution on single wall carbon nanotubes. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B,110, 16219-16224.
Hassani, A. H., Fazlollahi, S., Borghei, M. & Pourzamani, H. 2017. Evaluation of the efficiency of multi-walled carbon nanotubes for removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from aqueous solution (naphthalene case study). Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 19, 129-141. (In Persian)
Jafapour, M. 2006. Evaluation of bioreactor and advance proceedings of seminar of environmental engineering. Tarbiat Modares University Journal, 6, 8-11. (In Persian)
Kandah, M. I. & Meunier, J. L. 2007. Removal of nickel ions from water by multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 146, 283-288.
Karagozoglu, B., Tasdemir, M., Demirbas, E. & Kobya, M. 2007. The adsorption of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) from aqueous solutions onto sepiolite, fly ash and apricot shell activated carbon: kinetic and equilibrium studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 147, 297-306.
Karimi, B., Rajaei, M., Habibi, M., Esvand, M. & Abdollahy, M. 2013. Effect of UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation processes for the removal of naphthalene from the water. Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences, 16(9), 50-64. (In Persian)
Khorsandi, H. 2001. The role of surface adsorption with activated carbon in the removal of environmental pollutants. Journal of Urmia University of Medical Sciences, 11(4), p298. (In Persian)
Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Hu, W., Ahmad, I., Zhu, Y., Peng, X., et al. 2007. Carbon nanotubes-the promising adsorbent in wastewater treatment. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing, 61(1), p140.
Lu, C., Chiu, H. & Liu, C. 2006. Removal of zinc (II) from aqueous solution by purified carbon nanotubes: kinetics and equilibrium studies. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 45, 2850-2855.
Luna, F. M. T., Araújo, C. C., Veloso, C. B., Silva, I. J., Azevedo, D. C. & Cavalcante, C. L. 2011. Adsorption of naphthalene and pyrene from isooctane solutions on commercial activated carbons. Adsorption, 17,
Madrakian, T., Afkhami, A., Ahmadi, M. & Bagheri, H. 2011. Removal of some cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using magnetic-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 196, 109-114.
Mahvi, A. H. 2011. Study of inorganic mercury removal by carbon nanotubes multi-walled and single-walled. Tehran University of Medical Science Journal, 16, 8-32
Murr, L., Garza, K., Soto, K., Carrasco, A., Powell, T., Ramirez, D., et al. 2005. Cytotoxicity assessment of some carbon nanotubes and related carbon nanoparticle aggregates and the implications for anthropogenic carbon nanotube aggregates in the environment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2, 31-42.
Owabor, C., Agarry, S. & Jato, D. 2012. Removal of naphthalene from aqueous system using unripe orange peel as adsorbent: effects of operating variables. Desalination and Water Treatment, 48, 315-319.
Rao, G. P., Lu, C. & Su, F. 2007. Sorption of divalent metal ions from aqueous solution by carbon nanotubes: a review. Separation and Purification Technology, 58, 224-231.
Saadatjou, N., Rasoulifard, M. & Heidari, A. 2009. Removal of Basic Red 46 using low-cost adsorbent of hardened paste of portland cement from contaminated water. Journal of Color Science and Technology, 2(4), 221-226. (In Persian)
Stafiej, A. & Pyrzynska, K. 2008. Solid phase extraction of metal ions using carbon nanotubes. Microchemical Journal, 89, 29-33.
Trojanowicz, M. 2006. Analytical applications of carbon nanotubes: a review. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 25, 480-489.
Xu, D., Tan, X., Chen, C. & Wang, X. 2008. Removal of Pb (II) from aqueous solution by oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154, 407-416.
Yang, K., Wu, W., Jing, Q., Jiang, W. & Xing, B. 2010. Competitive adsorption of naphthalene with 2, 4-dichlorophenol and 4-chloroaniline on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 3021-3027.