بهینه‌سازی و مقایسه فرایندهای منفرد و ترکیبی با استفاده از کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیکی به‌منظور حذف رنگزا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه مهندسی عمران- محیط زیست، دانشکده مهندسی عمران و محیط زیست، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی عمران- محیط زیست، دانشکده مهندسی عمران و محیط زیست، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استاد، گروه تبدیل انرژی، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

10.22093/wwj.2019.147624.2741

چکیده

پساب صنعت نساجی باعث ایجاد مشکلات زیست محیطی جدی به‌دلیل سمیت بالا و رنگی بودن می‌شود. بنابراین دستیابی به یک فناوری تصفیه مؤثر به‌منظور حذف رنگزاهای آلی از پساب امری ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. کاویتاسیون تکنیک نوینی است که به‌دلیل قابلیت تولید رادیکال‌های آزاد با فعالیت بالا، به‌منظور تصفیه آلاینده‌های پیچیده، مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. تابحال پژوهشگران بیشتر بر روی تفسیرهای کیفی و روش‌های علمی مرتبط تمرکز داشته‌اند و آنالیزهای کمی برای تحلیل هزینه کنترل آلودگی برای صنعت نساجی به‌منظور قضاوت و تصمیم‌گیری انجام نشده است. این نیاز وجود دارد که در آینده مطالعات با تمرکز بر روی تحلیل هزینه فرایندهای بیشتری مانند فرایندهای اکسیداسیون پیشرفته، ترکیبی و بیولوژیکی در زمینه تصفیه فاضلاب نساجی انجام گیرد. بنابراین این پژوهش با هدف بررسی و مقایسه فرایندهای مختلف منفرد و ترکیبی با فرایند کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیکی (در یک سیستم واحد و با یک آلاینده مشخص) به‌منظور حذف رنگزای راکتیو مشکی 5 به انجام رسید. کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیکی با استفاده از صفحه روزنه‌دار با قطر روزنه 7 میلی‌متر در فشار ورودی 4 بار به‌کار گرفته شد. فرایندهای منفرد فتوکاتالیستی، فتولیز، جذب و ترکیبی کاویتاسیون+ فتولیز، کاویتاسیون+ فتوکاتالیست و کاویتاسیون+ فتوکاتالیستی در حذف رنگزا بررسی شد و هر کدام با تغییر پارامترهای مختلف (pH، غلظت نانو فتوکاتالیست TiO2، توان پرتودهی و غلظت رنگزا) بهینه‌یابی شدند و بهترین راندمان آن‌ها به‌دست آمد. به‌علاوه با در نظر گرفتن هزینه‌های انرژی و نانوفتوکاتالیست مصرفی فرایندها در کنار راندمان فرایند، با تعریف شاخص راندمان به هزینه، فرایندها رتبه دهی شدند. در فرایندهای مطالعه شده، کاهش pH با افزایش راندمان همراه بود، البته در مورد فرایند فتولیز افزایش راندمان در بالاترین سطح pH بازی به نسبت اسیدی چشمگیرتر بود. افزایش غلظت نانوفتوکاتالیست تا حد بهینه افزایش راندمان را در پی داشت. بالاتر بردن توان پرتودهی با بهبود راندمان تجزیه رنگزا همراه بود. راندمان فرایندها با افزایش غلظت آلاینده کاهش یافت. فرایندهای کاویتاسیون+ فتوکاتالیستی، فتوکاتالیستی، کاویتاسیون+ فتولیز، فتولیز، کاویتاسیون + فتوکاتالیست، کاویتاسیون و جذب به‌ترتیب با راندمان‌های رنگبری 83، 60، 52، 49، 43، 38 و 13 درصد در جایگاه اول تا هفتم قرار گرفتند. این در حالی است که در این بین با توجه توامان به راندمان و هزینه مصرفی (با تعریف نسبت راندمان به هزینه)، فرایند فتولیز و پس از آن فرایندهای کاویتاسیون + فتولیز، کاویتاسیون و کاویتاسیون + فتوکاتالیستی با بهترین نسبت‌ها در رتبه اول تا چهارم قرار گرفتند. کاویتاسیون هیدرودینامیکی رویکردی امیدبخش برای مقابله با آلاینده‌های صنعتی است و نیز ترکیب این فرایند با دیگر فرایندهای پیشرفته نتایج مطلوبی را در پی دارد. توجه به پارامترهای انرژی و هزینه نانوفتوکاتالیست مصرفی در مقایسه فرایندها بسیار مهم است و نباید تنها به راندمان خروجی فرایند اکتفا نمود. با در نظر گرفتن هزینه قابل توجه نانوفتوکاتالیست‌ها از قبیل نانو دی اکسید تیتانیم، رویکردهای ترکیبی (مانند ترکیب کاویتاسیون با دیگر فرایندهای اکسیداسیون پیشرفته) با نتیجه مصرف کمتر نانو ماده و هزینه عملیاتی کمتر، مقرون به صرفه هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization and Comparison of Single and Combined Processes Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation for Dye Removal

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pooya Arbab 1
  • Bita Ayati 2
  • Mohammad Reza Ansari 3
1 PhD Candidate, Dept. of Environmental Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Environmental Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Prof., Dept. of Energy Conversion, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The textile industry wastewater causes serious environmental problems due to its high toxicity and color. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective treatment technology for removing organic dyes from wastewater. Cavitation is one such modern technique which has been considered for the treatment of complex pollutants because of  its ability to generate highly reactive free radicals. Up to now, researchers have mostly focused on qualitative interpretations and related scientific techniques, and there has been no quantitative cost analysis for pollutant control in textile industries for decision making purposes. Future studies need to focus on the cost analysis of more processes in textile wastewater treatment, such as advanced oxidation and combined and biological processes. Thus, this research was conducted with the aim of investigating and comparing various single and combined processes using the hydrodynamic cavitation (in a single system and with a specific contaminant) to remove reactive black 5 dye. Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was applied by using an orifice plate with a 7 mm hole diameter at the inlet pressure of 4 bars. Single processes, photocatalysis , photolysis, adsorption and combined processes, cavitation + photolysis, cavitation + photocatalyst and cavitation + photocatalysis were investigated in dye elimination and each of them was optimized by changing the various parameters (pH, TiO2 nanophotocatalyst concentration, irradiation power and dye concentration) and their best efficiency was obtained. In addition, considering the cost of energy and the nanophotocatalyst consumed by the processes, along with the process efficiency, processes were ranked by defining the index of efficiency to cost ratio. In the studied processes, efficiency increased as pH reduced, however, in the case of the photolysis process, efficiency increase at the highest level of the basic pH was significantly higher than acidic pH. Increasing the nanophotocatalyst concentration up to an optimum level resulted in efficiency increase. The decolorization rate increased as the irradiation power increased. The processes efficiency decreased with an increase in the initial concentration of the dye. In the terms of efficiency, cavitation + photocatalysis, photocatalysis, cavitation + photolysis, photolysis, cavitation + photocatalyst, cavitation and adsorption processes, with the dye removal efficiencies of 83, 60, 52, 49, 43, 38 and 13% were placed first to seventh. This is while, considering both efficiency and cost consumption, photolysis process and then processes of cavitation + photolysis, cavitation and photocatalysis were ranked first to fourth, respectively with the best ratios. Hydrodynamic cavitation is a promising approach for dealing with industrial pollutants and the combination of this process with other advanced oxidation processes yields desirable results. Considering the parameters of energy and the cost of consumed nanophotocatalyst in the comparison of processes is very important and the output efficiency of the process should not be the only criterion. By paying attention to the substantial costs of nanophotocatalysts such as nanotitanium dioxide, combined techniques (e.g., the combination of cavitation with other advanced oxidation processes) leads to less consumption of nanomaterial and lower operational costs and is therefore cost-effective.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dye
  • Hydrodynamic Cavitation
  • Nanophotocatalyst
  • Efficiency
  • Cost

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