تحلیل اقتصادی مدیریت فشار در شبکه‌های توزیع آب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای مهندسی عمران- آب، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، ایران

2 استادیار دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی عمران- آب و سازه‌های هیدرولیکی، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران

10.22093/wwj.2019.163790.2794

چکیده

مدیریت فشار یکی از مؤثرترین روش‌های مدیریت نشت در شبکه‌های توزیع آب است که علاوه بر کاهش نشت، مزایای بسیاری برای شرکت‌های آب و فاضلاب دارد. هدف از این پژوهش تحلیل اقتصادی مدیریت فشار از طریق تحلیل جامع سود- هزینه با در نظر گرفتن جوانب مختلف اجرای مدیریت فشار در شبکه‌های توزیع آب است. به این منظور یک مدل ریاضی برای ارزیابی سود حاصل از اجرای مدیریت فشار بر کاهش نشت، شکستگی‌ها، نشت‌یابی فعال، مصرف آب، مصرف انرژی، خسارات وارده به ساختمان‌ها و افزایش رضایت مشتریان و همچنین هزینه‌های ناشی از خرید، نصب، بهره‌برداری و نگهداری و کاهش درآمد حاصل از کاهش مصرف آب، توسعه داده شد. با استفاده از مدل توسعه داده شده، سود خالص و نسبت سود به هزینه برای هر طرح مدیریت فشار قابل محاسبه است. به‌عنوان مطالعه موردی، سامانه مدیریت فشار پیشرفته از طریق نصب شیرهای کاهنده فشار مبتنی بر زمان و جریان در یک ناحیه ایزوله واقع در شهر مشهد اجرا شد و سود خالص و نسبت سود به هزینه حاصل از اجرای آن توسط مدل ریاضی توسعه داده شده در این مقاله، تخمین زده شد. نتایج نشان داد که سود خالص حاصل از اجرای سامانه مبتنی بر جریان از سامانه مبتنی بر زمان بیشتر است و نسبت سود به هزینه برای سامانه‌های مدیریت فشار مبتنی بر جریان و زمان به‌ترتیب 3/7 و 3/2 به‌دست آمد. مدل ریاضی توسعه داده شده در این مطالعه به مدیران و متخصصان صنعت آب برای درک جامعی از مزایا و توجیه اقتصادی اجرای طرح‌های مدیریت فشار کمک خواهد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Economic Analysis of Pressure Management in Water Distribution Networks

نویسندگان [English]

  • Iman Moslehi 1
  • Mohammad Reza Jalili Ghazizadeh 2
  • Ehsan Yousefi Khoshghalb 3
1 PhD Student in Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Water and Wastewater, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 MSc Student in Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Pressure management (PM) is one of the most effective methods of leakage management in water distribution networks (WDNs). In addition to reducing leakage, it provides many benefits for water utilities. The purpose of this paper is an economic analysis of the PM through a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis, taking into account the various aspects of the implementation of PM in WDNs. For this purpose, a mathematical model was developed for evaluating the benefits arising from implementing of PM on the reduction of leakage, pipe breaks, active leakage control, water consumption, energy consumption, building damages and the increase of customer satisfaction and the costs of purchase, installation, operation and maintenance, and revenue reduction due to the reduction of water consumption. Using the developed model, the net benefit and benefit/cost ratio can be calculated for each PM scheme. As a case study, the advanced PM system was implemented through the installation of time modulated (TM) and flow modulated (FM) pressure reducing valves (PRVs) in a district metered area (DMA) located in Mashhad city. The net benefit and benefit/cost ration was then estimated by the developed mathematical model. The results showed that the net benefit of PM system through FM is greater than TM and the benefit/cost ratio was obtained 3.7 and 3.2 respectively. The developed mathematical model will assist water managers and practitioners in comprehensive understanding of the benefits and economic justification for implementing PM schemes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pressure Management
  • Economic Analysis
  • Financial Analysis
  • Leakage Management
  • Water Distribution Network

Al-Washali, T., Sharma, S. & Kennedy, M. 2016. Methods of assessment of water losses in water supply systems: a review. Water Resources Management, 30, 4985-5001.

Amoatey, P. K., Minke, R. & Steinmetz, H. 2014. Leakage estimation in water networks based on two categories of night-time users: a case study of a developing country network. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 14, 329-336.

Amoatey, P. K., Minke, R. & Steinmetz, H. 2018. Leakage estimation in developing country water networks based on water balance, minimum night flow and component analysis methods. Water Practicle and Technology, 13, 96-105.

Awad, H., Kapelan, Z. & Savić, D. 2008. Analysis of pressure management economics in water distribution systems conf., Water Distribution Systems Analysis, National Park, South Africa.

AWWA. 2009. Water audits and loss control programs: M36, American Water Works Association.

AWWA. 2016. Water audits and loss control programs, Denver, American Water Works Association.

Creaco, E. & Walski, T. 2017. Economic analysis of pressure control for leakage and pipe burst reduction. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 143 (12), 04017074..

Fanner, P., Davis, S., Hoogerwerf, T., Liemberger, R., Sturm, R. & Thornton, J. 2007. Leakage management technologies, AWWA Research Foundation.

Fantozzi, M. & Lambert, A. 2007. Including the effects of pressure management in calculations of short-run economic leakage levels. IWA Conference "Water loss 2007", Bucharest, Romania.

Fantozzi, M. & Lambert, A. 2012. Residential night consumption–assessment, choice of scaling units and calculation of variability. Water Loss, 2012, 26-29.

Girard, M. & Stewart, R. 2007. Implementation of pressure and leakage management strategies on the Gold Coast, Australia: case study. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 133, 210-217.

Gomes, R., Sá Marques, A. & Sousa, J. 2011. Estimation of the benefits yielded by pressure management in water distribution systems. Urban Water Journal, 8, 65-77.

Hamilton, S. & Mckenzie, R. 2014. Water management and water loss, IWA Publishing, London.

Jalili Ghazizade, M. & Moslehi, I. 2017. General water loss reduction model in water distribution networks. The First Seminar with Experts in Water and Environment, Tehran. (In Persian)

Kanakoudis, V. & Gonelas, K. 2016. Non-revenue water reduction through pressure management in Kozani’s water distribution network: from theory to practice. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57, 11436-11446.

Lambert, A. 2001. What do we know about pressure-leakage relationships in distribution systems. IWA Conf. Systems Approach to Leakage Control and Water Distribution System Management, UK.

Lambert, A. 2003. Assessing non-revenue water and its components: a practical approach. Water, 21, 50-51.

Lambert, A. & Fantozzi, M. 2010. Recent developments in pressure management. IWA Conference "Water loss 2010", Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Lambert, A., Fantozzi, M. & Thornton, J. 2013. Practical approaches to modeling leakage and pressure management in distribution systems–progress since 2005. Proceedings of the 12th Int. Conf. on Computing and Control for the Water Industry-CCWI2013, Perugia, Italy.

Lambert, A. & Lalonde, A. Using practical predictions of economic intervention frequency to calculate short-run economic leakage level, with or without pressure management. Proceedings of IWA Specialised Conference ‘Leakage, 2005, 310-321.

Lambert, A. & Thornton, J. 2012. Pressure: bursts relationships: influence of pipe materials, validation of scheme results, and implications of extended asset life. IWA Conference "Water loss 2012", Mauila, Philippines.

Martínez-Codina, Á., Cueto-Felgueroso, L., Castillo, M. & Garrote, L. 2015. Use of pressure management to reduce the probability of pipe breaks: a bayesian approach. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 141(9), 04015010.

MOE. 2018. Monthly statistical reports of water and electricity industries, Deputy of Planning and Economic, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)

Moslehi, I. & Jalili Ghazizadeh, M. 2016. A review of the relationships between pressure and burst in water supply systems. Journal of Water and Wastewater Science and Engineering, 1, 11-19. (In Persian)

Mutikanga, H. E., Sharma, S. K. & Vairavamoorthy, K. 2012. Methods and tools for managing losses in water distribution systems. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 139, 166-174.

Pearson, D. & Trow, S. 2005. Calculating economic levels of leakage. Leakage 2005 Conference Proceedings, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Puust, R., Kapelan, Z., Savic, D. & Koppel, T. 2010. A review of methods for leakage management in pipe networks. Urban Water Journal, 7, 25-45.

Sajjadifar, S., Pakrouh, S., Ghane, A. & Fathi, B. 2017. Effective drinking water pricing, a case study of Arak City. Journal of Water and Wastewater, 28(1), 95-103. (In Persian)

Tabesh, M. & Beigi, S. 2017. Water pricing as an economic justification for reducing non-revenue water (NRW) projects. Journal of Water and Wastewater, 28(1), 113-125. (In Persian)

Thornton, J. & Lambert, A. 2005. Progress in practical prediction of pressure: leakage, pressure: burst frequency and pressure: consumption relationships. Proceedings of IWA Special Conference'Leakage, 2005, 12-14.

Thornton, J. & Lambert, A. Pressure management extends infrastructure life and reduces unnecessary energy costs. IWA Conference'Water Loss, 2007, Bucharest, Romania.

Van Zyl, J. & Clayton, C. 2007. The effect of pressure on leakage in water distribution systems. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Water Management, Thomas Telford Ltd, 109-114.

Vicente, D., Garrote, L., Sánchez, R. & Santillán, D. 2015. Pressure management in water distribution systems: current status, proposals, and future trends. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 142, 04015061.

VPSPS. 2012. Guideline for determining effective parameters on unaccounted for water (UFW) and water losses reduction schemes. Tehran, Iran: Vice Presidency for Strategic Planning and Supervision. (In Persian)

Yousefi Khoshqalb, E., Jalili Ghazizade, M. & Moslehi, I. 2018. A review of methods for economic level of leakage in water distribution networks. 2nd Biennial Conference on Water Economics, Tehran. (In Persian)