بررسی آزمایشگاهی حذف جیوه از محلول‌های آبی با استفاده از جاذب نانولوله کربنی مغناطیسی شده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی شیمی، واحد ماهشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ماهشهر، ایران

2 استادیار،گروه مهندسی شیمی، واحد ماهشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ماهشهر، ایران

10.22093/wwj.2019.138327.2709

چکیده

حذف آلودگی‌ها به‌وسیله جاذب، یک روش مفید و مؤثر برای حذف فلزات سنگین از نمونه‌های آبی است. جیوه یکی از انواع فلزات سنگین است که اثرات بسیار مخربی بر سلامت انسان و محیط زیست دارد. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی عملکرد نانولوله کربنی مغناطیسی شده، برای حذف جیوه از محلول‌های آبی انجام شد. از روش سطح پاسخ بر مبنای مدل باکس-بنکن برای ارزیابی اثر متغیرهای مستقل مانند pH محلول، غلظت اولیه جیوه، دز جاذب و زمان تماس بر عملکرد پاسخ (درصد حذف جیوه) استفاده شد. ابتدا نانولوله‌ کربنی مغناطیسی‌شده سنتز شد و مشخصات جاذب به‌وسیله آنالیزهای SEM و FT-IR و XRD بررسی شد، سپس آزمایش‌های جذب بر اساس طراحی آزمایش انجام شد. نتایج حاصل از آنالیز مشخصات جاذب نشان داد که ذرات اکسید آهن به خوبی بر روی نانولوله‌های کربنی چند دیواره نشانده شده‌اند و جاذب خاصیت مغناطیسی پیدا کرده است. نتایج حاصل از انجام آزمایش‌ها توسط نرم‌افزار Design Expert آنالیز و تحلیل شد و مناسب‌ترین مدل برای رسم منحنی‌های سطح پاسخ که روش مرتبه دوم بوده است، مشخص شد. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش‌ها بیشترین راندمان حذف جیوه تحت شرایط pH برابر 6، دز جاذب 6/0 گرم در لیتر، غلظت اولیه جیوه ppm 10 و زمان تماس 150 دقیقه حاصل شد که معادل 85 درصد بود. با تطابق داده‌های آزمایشگاهی با مدل‌های ایزوترم و سینتیک مشخص شد که فرایند جذب از مدل ایزوترم فروندلیچ (99/0<R2) و همچنین مدل سینتیک شبه مرتبه دوم (99/0<R2) پیروی می‌کند. به‌طور کلی می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که جاذب نانولوله ‌کربنی مغناطیسی‌شده ظرفیت بسیار بالایی در حذف جیوه دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Experimental Study on Removal of Mercury from Aqueous Solutions by Using Magnetite Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as Adsorbent

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Hayati 1
  • Somayeh Tourani 2
1 MSc Student of Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr, Iran
چکیده [English]

Removal of contaminants by adsorbent is a useful and effective way to remove heavy metals from wastewater and aqueous samples. Mercury is one of the heavy metals that is toxic to humans, animals and the environment. In this study, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube (MMWCNT) composite was synthesized and used to remove Hg(II) from aqueous solutions. This work was conducted on a laboratory scale and based on the design of experiment by the surface response methodology (RSM) and based on Box-Behnken design, and the effects of independent variables including pH, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of Hg and contact time in different levels were evaluated with the help of Design-Expert Stat-Ease Inc software. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results show that the adsorption of Hg(II) on magnetic MWCNT composite is strongly dependent on contact time and adsorbent dosage. The highest efficiency of removal mercury was about 85% and that occurred when pH=6, dose of adsorbent= 0.6 g/L, initial concentration of Hg(II)=10 ppm and contact time=150 minutes. The adsorption isotherm data were better fitted by Freundlich model, while kinetic data can be characterized by the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. In general, it can be concluded that magnetic MWCNT adsorbent has a very high ability to remove mercury.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adsorption
  • Mercury
  • Magnetic carbon nanotube
  • Adsorption Isotherms
  • Adsorption kinetics

Amouei A., Asgharnia H.A., Karimian K., Mahdavi Y., Balarak D. & S.M., G. 2016. Optimization of dye reactive orange 16 (RO16) adsorption by modified sunflower stem using response surface method from aqueous solutions. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, 14, 813-826. (In Persian)

Anagnostopoulos, V. A., Manariotis, I. D., Karapanagioti, H. K. & Chrysikopoulos, C. V. 2012. Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions by malt spent rootlets. Chemical Engineering Journal, 213, 135-141.

Anbia, M. & Amirmahmoodi, S. 2016. Removal of Hg (II) and Mn (II) from aqueous solution using nanoporous carbon impregnated with surfactants. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 9, S319-S325.

Berglund, F. & Bertin, M. 1969. Chemical fallout, Springfield, Tomas Publisher, USA.

Cai, J., Shen, B., Li, Z., Chen, J. & He, C. 2014. Removal of elemental mercury by clays impregnated with KI and KBr. Chemical Engineering Journal, 241, 19-27.

Chen, C., Hu, J., Shao, D., Li, J. & Wang, X. 2009. Adsorption behavior of multiwall carbon nanotube/iron oxide magnetic composites for Ni (II) and Sr (II). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164, 923-928.

Cox, M., El-Shafey, E. I., Pichugin, A. A. & Appleton, Q. 2000. Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solution on a carbonaceous sorbent prepared from flax shive. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 75, 427-435.

Cui, H., Qian, Y., Li, Q., Zhang, Q. & Zhai, J. 2012. Adsorption of aqueous Hg (II) by a polyaniline/attapulgite composite. Chemical Engineering Journal, 211-212, 216-223.

Dawlet, A., Talip, D., Mi, H. & Malikezhati, Y. 2013. Removal of mercury from aqueous solution using sheep bone charcoal. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 18, 800-808.

Ertugay, N. & Bayhan, Y. K. 2008. Biosorption of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions by biomass of Agaricus bisporus. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154, 432-439.

Fan, X.-J. & Li, X. 2012. Preparation and magnetic property of multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated by Fe3O4 nanoparticles. New Carbon Materials, 27, 111-116.

Foo, K. Y. & Hameed, B. H. 2010. Insights into the modeling of adsorption isotherm systems. Chemical Engineering Journal, 156, 2-10.

Gong, J.-L., Wang, B., Zeng, G.-M., Yang, C.-P., Niu, C.-G., Niu, Q.-Y. et al. 2009. Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution using magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube nanocomposite as adsorbent. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164, 1517-1522.

Gupta, V. K., Agarwal, S. & Saleh, T. A. 2011. Synthesis and characterization of alumina-coated carbon nanotubes and their application for lead removal. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 185, 17-23.

Hadavifar, M., Bahramifar, N., Younesi, H. & Li, Q. 2014. Adsorption of mercury ions from synthetic and real wastewater aqueous solution by functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube with both amino and thiolated groups. Chemical Engineering Journal, 237, 217-228.

Hadi, P., To, M.-H., Hui, C.-W., Lin, C. S. K. & Mckay, G. 2015. Aqueous mercury adsorption by activated carbons. Water Research, 73, 37-55.

Hashemzadeh, F., Hasani, A., Ahmad Panahi, H. & Borghei, S. M. 2018. Evaluation of the removal of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and zinc) from aqueous solutions using multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with chitosan. Journal of Water and Wastewater 29 (3), 31-41. (In Persian)

Ho, Y. S. & Mckay, G. 1998. Kinetic models for the sorption of dye from aqueous solution by wood. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 76, 183-191.

Hu, J., Chen, C., Zhu, X. & Wang, X. 2009. Removal of chromium from aqueous solution by using oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162, 1542-1550.

Hu, J., Chen, G. & Lo, I. M. C. 2005. Removal and recovery of Cr (VI) from wastewater by maghemite nanoparticles. Water Research, 39, 4528-4536.

Huang, S., Ma, C., Liao, Y., Min, C., Du, P. & Jiang, Y. 2016. Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption on poly(1-amino-5-chloroanthraquinone) nanofibrils: equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanism Studies. Journal of Nanomaterials, Vol. 2016, Article ID: 7245829.

Imai, A. & Gloyna, E. F. 1990. Effects of pH and oxidation state of chromium on the behavior of chromium in the activated sludge process. Water Research, 24, 1143-1150.

Jahantigh, F., Mortazavi, S. M. & Qoreishy, S. M. B. 2018. Mercury removal from contaminated water resources using modified multi walled carbon nanotubes. Journal of Water and Wastewater. 29(3), 42-53. (In persian)

Jeon, C. & Ha Park, K. 2005. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of mercury (II) ions using aminated chitosan bead. Water Research, 39, 3938-3944.

Kosa, S. A., Al-Zhrani, G. & Abdel Salam, M. 2012. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with 8-hydroxyquinoline. Chemical Engineering Journal, 181-182, 159-168.

Manohar, D. M., Anoop Krishnan, K. & Anirudhan, T. S. 2002. Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions and chlor-alkali industry wastewater using 2-mercaptobenzimidazole-clay. Water Research, 36, 1609-1619.

Mondal, D. K., Nandi, B. K. & Purkait, M. K. 2013. Removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solution using bamboo leaf powder: equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 1, 891-898.

Moustafa, Y. M. M., Morsi, R. & Hassan, M. 2014. Mercury removing capacity of multiwall carbon nanotubes as detected by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy: kinetic and equilibrium studies. International Journal of Chemical, Nuclear, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, 8(7), 690-696.

Nam, K., H. Gomez-Salazar, S. & Tavlarides, L. 2003. Mercury (II) adsorption from wastewaters using a thiol functional Adsorbent. Industrial and Chemsitry Research, 42 (9), 1955-1964.

Naiya, T. K., Bhattacharya, A. K. & Das, S. K. 2008. Removal of Cd (II) from aqueous solutions using clarified sludge. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 325, 48-56.

Nabi Bidhendi, G. R., Torabian, A., Ehsani, H. & Razmkhah, N. 2007. Evaluation of industrial dyeing wastewater treatment with coagulants and polyelectrolyte as a coagulant aid. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 4(1), 29-36.

Ren, X., Chen, C., Nagatsu, M. & Wang, X. 2011. Carbon nanotubes as adsorbents in environmental pollution management: a review. Chemical Engineering Journal, 170, 395-410.

Sadegh, H., Shahryari-Ghoshekandi, R. & Kazemi, M. 2014. Study in synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes decorated by magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. International Nano Letters, 4, 129-135.

Tang, W.-W., Zeng, G.-M., Gong, J.-L., Liu, Y., Wang, X.-Y. Liu, Y.-Y., et al. 2012. Simultaneous adsorption of atrazine and Cu (II) from wastewater by magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube. Chemical Engineering Journal, 211-212, 470-478.

Wang, L. K., Tay, J.-H., Tay, S. T. L. & Hung, Y.-T. 2010. Handbook of environmental bioengineering, Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin.

Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Hou, C., Qi, Z., He, X. & Li, Y. 2015. Facile synthesis of monodisperse functional magnetic dialdehyde starch nano-composite and used for highly effective recovery of Hg(II). Chemosphere, 14, 26-33

Xiao, D.-L., Li, H., He, H., Lin, R. & Zuo, P.-L. 2014. Adsorption performance of carboxylated multi-wall carbon nanotube-Fe3O4 magnetic hybrids for Cu (II) in water. New Carbon Materials, 29, 15-25.

Yegane Badi, M., Azari, A., Esrafili, A., Ahmadi, E. & Gholami, M. 2015. Performance evaluation of magnetized multiwall carbon nanotubes by iron oxide nanoparticles in removing fluoride from aqueous solution. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Science, 25, 128-142. (In Persian)

Zhang, D., Pan, B., Wu, M., Wang, B., Zhang, H., Peng, H. et al. 2011. Adsorption of sulfamethoxazole on functionalized carbon nanotubes as affected by cations and anions. Environmental Pollution, 159, 2616-2621.

Zhang, D., Yin, Y. & Liu, J.-F. 2017. Removal of Hg2+ and methylmercury in waters by functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: adsorption behavior and the impacts of some environmentally relevant factors. Chemical Speciation and Bioavalability, 29(1), 161-169.