بررسی سیستم اداری- نهادی مدیریت آب در حوضه آبریز زاینده‌رود به روش کیفی نظریه زمینه‌ای

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کاندیدای دکتری مهندسی منابع آب، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 استاد، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

10.22093/wwj.2019.149029.2749

چکیده

افزایش فزاینده نیازهای آبی در بخش‌های مختلف کشاورزی، شرب و صنعت و از طرف دیگر تغییرات اقلیمی که منتج به کاهش منابع آب تجدیدپذیر شده باعث محدودیت‌های جدی در اعمال شیوه‌های متعارف و سنتی مدیریت منابع آب به‌ویژه در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک از جمله فلات مرکزی ایران شده است. برای مدیریت مؤثر منابع آب، ضروری است علاوه بر سیستم طبیعی، سیستم‌های اجتماعی-اقتصادی و سیستم اداری- نهادی مرتبط با منابع آب نیز بررسی شوند. هدف پژوهش حاضر، مطالعه‌ سیستم اداری- نهادی مدیریت آب در حوضه‌ زاینده‌رود است. عموماً برای مطالعه سیستم‌های منابع آب، از روش‌های کمی استفاده می‌شود، لکن عدم وجود داده‌های کمّی کافی، ضعف مدل‌های کمّی در انطباق با سیستم‌های انسانی و عدم توانایی برای ارائه‌ یک تصویر کلی از مسئله، از جمله چالش‌های پیش روی این مدل‌ها محسوب می‌شوند؛ لذا استفاده از روش‌های کیفی در کنار روش‌های کمّی، برای شناخت این سیستم‌ها ضروری است. در پژوهش حاضر، با استفاده از روش کیفی تئوری زمینه‌ای، به‌عنوان یک روش کیفی نظام‌مند، مهم‌ترین مشکلات سیستم اداری- نهادی مدیریت آب در حوضه‌ زاینده‌رود مطالعه شد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد، اطلاعات ناقص و اشتباه، فهم متفاوت از مسائل، جلسات ناکارآمد، تعارض منافع، عدم هماهنگی بین سازمان‌ها، امکان فساد و ضعف نظارت از جمله عواملی هستند که سبب شده‌اند ساختار اداری فعلی ناکارآمد باشد. ریشه‌ این مشکلات نیز عدم وجود شفافیت و عدم مشارکت ذینفعان در مدیریت منابع آب است. این عوامل در کنار فقدان سازوکار بازدارنده از تخلف، سبب شده است منابع آب بیش از ظرفیت حوضه تخصیص یابد و یا به‌صورت غیرمجاز مورد بهره‌برداری قرار گیرد، به‌طوری که بر اساس آمار 20 ساله، میانگین منابع آب تجدیدپذیر حوضه با در نظر گرفتن انتقال آب بین حوضه‌ای حدود 2500 میلیون مترمکعب در سال بوده در حالی که متوسط مصارف سالانه حدود 2770 میلیون مترمکعب بوده و در مجموع باعث کسری تجمعی 4900 میلیون مترمکعب در ذخیره منابع آب تجدیدناپذیر به‌ویژه آب‌های زیرزمینی در حوضه شده است. در این مقاله صرفاً به روش کیفی نظریه زمینه‌ای پرداخته شد و نیاز است در آینده از روش کمّی نیز برای ارزیابی دقیق میزان اهمیت عوامل محرک در ناپایداری منابع آب حوضه آبریز زاینده‌رود استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Administrative-Institutional System of Water Management in the Zayandehrud Basin Using Qualitative Method of Grounded Theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajad Enteshari 1
  • Hamidreza Safavi 2
1 PhD Candidate, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Tech., Isfahan, Iran
2 Prof., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Tech., Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Increasing water demand in agricultural, urban and industrial sectors and decreasing water resources due to climate change caused serious restrictions in traditional manners of water management especially in arid and semi-arid regions including Central Plateau of Iran. In order to manage water resources effectively, it is essential to consider the socio-economic system and administrative-institutional system, in addition to the natural system. This study aims to investigate the administrative-institutional system of water management in Zayandehrud basin. Quantitative methods generally are used to study water resource systems, but these methods face some challenges such as: the lack of sufficient data, the weakness of the quantitative models in adapting to human systems, and the inability to provide a general picture of the problem; therefore, it’s essential to use of Qualitative methods along with quantitative methods for understanding these systems. The present study tries to understand the most important problems of the administrative-institution of water management system in the Zayandehrud basin using the grounded theory as a systematic qualitative method. The results of this study indicate that the incomplete and misleading information, different understanding of issues, ineffective meetings, conflict of interest, lack of coordination and conflict between organizations, corruptor structure, and weak regulatory system are the problems that caused the current administrative structuer is ineffective. The main causes of these problems are lack of transparency and non-participatory management. These factors, along with the lack of a deterrent mechanism, have led to excessive water allocation and unauthorized exploitation. According to recent 20-years data, the average annual renewable water including transferred water into the basin has been about 2500 MCM while the average annual water consumption has been about 2770 MCM and resulted in a cumulative decrease of 4900 MCM non-renewable water storage. In this paper, only quantitative method of the grounded theory is considered and it is necessary to use a quantitative method in the future to accurately assess the importance of the factors driving the instability of water resources in the Zayandehrud river basin.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grounded theory
  • Water Resources Management
  • Zayandehrud River Basin
  • Administrative-Institutional System

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