عنوان مقاله [English]
Increasing water demand in agricultural, urban and industrial sectors and decreasing water resources due to climate change caused serious restrictions in traditional manners of water management especially in arid and semi-arid regions including Central Plateau of Iran. In order to manage water resources effectively, it is essential to consider the socio-economic system and administrative-institutional system, in addition to the natural system. This study aims to investigate the administrative-institutional system of water management in Zayandehrud basin. Quantitative methods generally are used to study water resource systems, but these methods face some challenges such as: the lack of sufficient data, the weakness of the quantitative models in adapting to human systems, and the inability to provide a general picture of the problem; therefore, it’s essential to use of Qualitative methods along with quantitative methods for understanding these systems. The present study tries to understand the most important problems of the administrative-institution of water management system in the Zayandehrud basin using the grounded theory as a systematic qualitative method. The results of this study indicate that the incomplete and misleading information, different understanding of issues, ineffective meetings, conflict of interest, lack of coordination and conflict between organizations, corruptor structure, and weak regulatory system are the problems that caused the current administrative structuer is ineffective. The main causes of these problems are lack of transparency and non-participatory management. These factors, along with the lack of a deterrent mechanism, have led to excessive water allocation and unauthorized exploitation. According to recent 20-years data, the average annual renewable water including transferred water into the basin has been about 2500 MCM while the average annual water consumption has been about 2770 MCM and resulted in a cumulative decrease of 4900 MCM non-renewable water storage. In this paper, only quantitative method of the grounded theory is considered and it is necessary to use a quantitative method in the future to accurately assess the importance of the factors driving the instability of water resources in the Zayandehrud river basin.
Abdollahi, A., Zahedi-Mazandarani, M., Salehi, S. & Zokaei, M. S. 2017. Semantic system of drought phenomenon among farmers in Isfahan province. Local Development (Rural-Urban), 8(2), 271-294. (In Persian).
Argent, R. M., Sojda, R. S., Giupponi, C., McIntosh, B., Voinov, A. A. & Maier, H. R. 2016. Best practices for conceptual modelling in environmental planning and management. Environmental Modelling and Software, 80, 113-121. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.02.023.
Asís, M. G. De, Leary, D. O., Ljung, P. & Butterworth, J. 2009. Improving transparency, integrity and accountability in water supply and sanitation, water supply. Washington DC: The World Bank Institute. doi: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7892-2.
Center for Responsive Politics. 2011. Revolving door: methodology. Available at: <https://www.opensecrets.org/revolving/methodology.php>.
Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. 2014. Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. doi: 10.4135/9781452230153.
Dong, C., Schoups, G. & Van de Giesen, N. 2013. Scenario development for water resource planning and management: a review. Technological forecasting and social change, 80(4), 749-761.
Ehsani, M. 2009. Instructive lessons from international experience in the management of irrigation. in The 5th Technical Workshop on Water Management Participation in Irrigation and Drainage Management. Tehran: Iranian Irrigation and Drainage Committee, p. 19-37. (In Persian).
Fazeli, M. & Pakseresht, S. 2006. A comprehensive approach to exploiting the problems of irrigation networks in Khuzestan province, Khuzestan, Iran. (In persian)
Forrester, J. W. 1992. Policies, decisions and information sources for modeling. European Journal of Operational Research, 59(1), 42-63. doi: 10.1016/0377-2217(92)90006-U.
Glaser, B. G. & Strauss, A. L. 1967. The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research, observations, AldineTransaction, New Jersey. doi: 10.2307/2575405.
Global Witness. 2003. Transparency and the right to information. Available at: <http://www.foresttransparency.info/background/forest-transparency/32/transparency-and-the-right-to-information/>.
Golmohammadi, M. H. 2015. Integrated water resources planning and management (IWRPM) in the Zayandehrud basin under uncertainty using fuzzy performance criteria and sustainability index. Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. (In Persian)
Guest, J. S., Skerlos, S. J., Daigger, G. T., Corbett, J. R. E. & Love, N. G. 2010. ‘The use of qualitative system dynamics to identify sustainability characteristics of decentralized wastewater management alternatives. Water Scinece and Technology, 61(16), 1637-1644. doi: 10.2166/wst.2010.880.
Herr, A., Dambacher, J. M., Pinkard, E., Glen, M., Mohammed, C. & Wardlaw, T. 2016. The uncertain impact of climate change on forest ecosystems - How qualitative modelling can guide future research for quantitative model development. Environmental Modelling and Software, 76, 95-107. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2015.10.023.
Horlemann, L. & Mohajeri, S. 2017. Reviving the dying giant: integrated water resource management in the Zayandeh Rud catchment, Iran, Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-54922-4.
Isfahan Agricultural Jihad Organization. 2017. Statistics and information, Isfahan, Iran. <http://agri-es.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=1925.> (In Persian)
Isfahan Regional Water Company. 2016. Statistics and information of Basic studies, Isfahan, Iran. (In Persian)
Islamic Consultative Assembly. 2009. The law on dissemination and free access to information, Tehran, Iran.
Ison, R. & Watson, D. 2007. Illuminating the possibilities for social learning in the management of Scotland, s water. Journal of Ecology And Society, 12(1), 21.
Jabbari, I. & Jangi Marani, A. 2009. Policies and programs for the development of farmers’ participation in managing irrigation and drainage networks. Fifth Technical Workshop on Water Management Participation in Irrigation and Drainage Management of the Network. Tehran, Iranian Irrigation and Drainage Committee, p. 1-19. (In Persian)
Kendellen, K. & Camiré, M. 2019. Applying in life the skills learned in sport: a grounded theory. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 40, 23-32. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.09.002.
Kornilaki, M. & Font, X. 2019. Normative influences: how socio-cultural and industrial norms influence the adoption of sustainability practices. A grounded theory of Cretan, small tourism firms. Journal of Environmental Management, 230, 183-189. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.09.064.
Kotir, J. H., Brown, G., Marshall, N. & Johnstone, R. 2017. Systemic feedback modelling for sustainable water resources management and agricultural development : an application of participatory modelling approach in the Volta River Basin. Environmental Modelling and Software, 88, 106-118. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.11.015.
Kvale, S. 1994. Ten standard objections to qualitative research interviews. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 25(2), 147-173.
Lee, Y. W., Strong, D. M., Kahn, B. K. & Wang, R. Y. 2002. AIQM: a methodology for information quality assessment. Information and Management, 40(2), 133-146. doi: 10.1016/S0378-7206(02)00043-5.
Loucks, D. P., van Beek, E., Stedinger, J. R., Dijkman, J. P. M. & Villars, M. T. 2005. Water resources systems planning and management and applications: an introduction to methods, models and applications, Water. Paris: UNESCO. doi: 92-3-103998-9.
Luna-Reyes, L. F. & Andersen, D. L. 2003. Collecting and analyzing qualitative data for system dynamics: methods and models, System Dynamics Review, 19(4), 271-296. doi: 10.1002/sdr.280.
Mendoza, G. A. & Martins, H. 2006. Multi-criteria decision analysis in natural resource management: A critical review of methods and new modelling paradigms. Forest Ecology and Management, 230(1-3),
1-22. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.03.023.
Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. 2014. Implementing rules of the law on dissemination and free access to information, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).
Mirchi, A., Madani, K., Watkins, D. & Ahmad, S. 2012. Synthesis of system dynamics tools for holistic conceptualization of water resources problems. Water Resources Management, 26(9), 2421-2442. doi: 10.1007/s11269-012-0024-2.
Mirnezami, S. J. & Bagheri, A. 2017. Assessing the water governance system for groundwater conservation in Iran. Iran Water Resources Research, 13(2), 32-55. (In Persian)
Mohammadpour, A. 2011. Qualitative research methods, Jamee-Shenasan, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).
Osooli, N., Hosseini, M., Hosseini, J. F., Hamze, A. & Abi, H. 2011. Qualitativ examination of challenges and strategies to sustainable water resources management in agriculture sector in Kouhdasht region in Lorestan province. World Applied Science Journal, 12(4), 485-490.
Rahmani, F. & Leifels, K. 2018. Abductive grounded theory: a worked example of a study in construction management, Construction Management and Economics, 36(10), 565-583. doi: 10.1080/01446193.2018.1449954.
Randers, J. 1980. Guidelines for model conceptualization, Elements of the Systems Dynamics Method. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, pp. 117-139.
Ranjbar, H., Haghdoost, A.-A., Salsali, M., Khoshdel, A., Soleimani, M. & Bahrami, N. 2012. Sampling in qualitative research: a guide for beginning. Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research, 10(3), 238-250. (In Persian).
Safavi, H. R. & Enteshari, S. 2016. Social tools for resolving the water crisis in the Zayandehrud river basin. International Conference on Water and Environment in the New Millennium. Education and Capacity Building. University of Tehran, Tehran.
Safavi, H. R., Golmohammadi, M. H. & Sandoval-Solis, S. 2015. Expert knowledge based modeling for integrated water resources planning and management in the Zayandehrud river basin. Journal of Hydrology, 528, 773-789. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.07.014.
Sarhadi, A. & Soltani, S. 2013. Determination of water requirements of the Gavkhuni wetland, Iran: a hydrological approach. Journal of Arid Environments, 98, 27-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2013.07.010.
Simonovic, S. P. 2009. Managing water resources: methods and tools for a system approach. London: UNESCO.
Srdjevic, Z., Funamizu, N., Srdjevic, B. & Bajcetic, R. 2017. Grounded theory methodology and public participation in water management. European Water, 60, 381-386.
Statistical Center of Iran. 2016. Population and housing census. Iran, p. (In Persian). <https://www.amar.org.ir.>
Swatuk, L., Mengiste, A. & Jembere, K. 2008. Conflict resolution and negotiation skills for integrated water resources management, international network for capacity building in integrated water resources management. Bangladesh: CAP-Net.
Tavakoli Nabavi, S. E. 2011. Determination and as sessment of sustainability criteria for Zayandeh Rud river Basin. Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. (In Persian).
Thompson, D. F. 1993. Understanding financial conflicts of interest. New England Journal of Medicine, 329(8), 573-576.
UN-Water. 2009. The united nations world water development report 3–Water in a changing world, UNESCO. Paris. doi: 10.3390/w3020618.
Walker, W. E., Loucks, D. P. & Carr, G. 2015. Social responses to water management decisions. Environmental Processes, 2(3), 485-509. doi: 10.1007/s40710-015-0083-5.
Walters, P. & Javernick-will, A. N. 2015. Long-term functionality of rural water services in developing countries: a system dynamics approach to understanding the dynamic interaction of factors’. doi: 10.1021/es505975h.
Zayandab Consulting. 2009. Determination of resources and consumptions of water in the Zayandehrud river basin, Isfahan, Iran. (In Persian).