هیدروکربن‌های آروماتیک چند حلقه‌ای در رسوبات سطحی سواحل جنوبی دریای خزر، شهرستان انزلی: ارزیابی سمیت و شناسایی منشأ

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور

2 استادیار گروه مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، نور

3 مربی، دانشکده محیط زیست، دانشگاه ملایر

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر، سواحل دریای خزر متحمل فشارهای شدید انسانی به‌ویژه به‌علت ورود آلاینده‌های نفتی ناشی از فعالیت‌های استخراجی و پالایش نفت و تخلیه فاضلاب‌های خانگی و صنعتی شده و دچار خسارات جدی شده است. هدف از این مطالعه، تعیین منشأ و سطوح یکی از خطرناک‌ترین آلاینده‌های نفتی، یعنی هیدروکربن‌های آروماتیک چند حلقه‌ای در سواحل جنوبی دریای خزر (شهرستان انزلی) و مقایسه آن با استاندارد‌های موجود، به‌منظور کسب اطلاعات پایه برای اتخاذ فعالیت مدیریتی صحیح بود. به این منظور نه نمونه رسوب سطحی از این ناحیه برای آنالیز این آلاینده‌ها با استفاده از کروماتوگرافی گازی با طیف‌سنج جرمی جمع‌آوری شد. غلظت‌های مجموع PAHs در گستره 736 تا9009 نانوگرم بر گرم وزن خشک، همراه با تمایل افزاینده‌ای به‌سمت غرب تعیین شد. همچنین منشأ این ترکیبات با به‌کار‌گیری شاخص‌های متعدد، پتروژنیک تشخیص داده شد. در مقایسه با راهبرد‌های کیفی رسوب فلوریدا، TELs/PELs، سطوح نیمی از ترکیبات PAHs متجاوز از TELs و غلظت ترکیبات نفتالن، فلورن و فنانترن در برخی ایستگاه‌ها متجاوز از PELs به‌دست آمد که احتمالاً منجر به آثار سمی حاد خواهند شد؛ اما در مقایسه با راهبرد‌های ایالات متحده ERLs/ERMs، اغلب ترکیبات در اکثریت ایستگاه‌ها، سطوح کمتر از ERLs را نشان دادند. در نتیجه به‌کار‌گیری راهبرد‌های کیفی ایالت فلوریدا روش محافظه‌کارانه‌تری برای حمایت از موجودات زنده ساکن رسوب است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments from the Southern Shores of the Caspian Sea, Anzali City: Toxicity Assessment and Source Identification

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rokhsareh Azimi 1
  • Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari 2
  • Samar Mortazavi 3
1 MSc Student, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor
2 Assist. Prof. of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor
3 Instructor, Faculty of Environment, Malayer University, Malayer
چکیده [English]

The Caspian Sea has recently experienced great damages due to intense pressure from human activities, petroleum contaminant discharges from oil extraction and refining activities, and domestic and industrial wastewaters discharged into the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the sources and levels of one of the most dangerous oil pollutants ‒ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ‒ in the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (Anzali City). The data would be compared with standard PAHs concentrations in order to derive the information required for designing appropriate management measures. For the purposes of this study, nine surface sediment samples were collected from the experimental field and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the samples for their contaminants. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 736 to 9009 ng g-1d.w with an increasing trend along the east-west direction. Also, multiple indexes were used to detect the petrogenic origin of these compounds. Compared with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) of Florida (TELs/PELs), the levels for half the PAH compounds exceeded TELs. Moreover, naphthalene, fluorine, and phenanthrene concentrations exceeded the PELs in some stations, indicating likely acute toxic effects. However, comparison with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) of the United States (TELs/PELs) revealed that most of the compounds at the stations investigated were lower than ERLs. It was concluded that the quality guidelines of the Florida State are more conservative for protecting the biotic organisms in the region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • PAHs
  • Caspian Sea
  • Anzali City
  • SQGs
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