عنوان مقاله [English]
Application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on farmlands is a common practice in most countries. Although the practice may play a positive role in plant performance, the organic amendments introduced may increase the soil heavy metals content. This study was conducted in Arak, Iran, to investigate the effectiveness of DTPA chelate on corn Cd availability in a sewage sludge treated soil. The treatments consisted of sewage sludge (0, 15, and 30 t ha-1) polluted with cadmium applied at 0, 5, 10, and 15 mg kg-1 as well as DTPA applied at 0 and 1.5 mmol kg-1 soil. Corn plants were then grown in the soil in each treatmnent and, on day 60, the physic-chemical characteristics and Cd quantities were measured ion both the corn plants and soil samples. Application of 1.5 m mol of DTPA chelate in soil contaminated with 5 mg Cd led to a significant increase in the soil available Cd content. It was also observed that application of DTPA chelate to soils containing 30 t ha-1 of sewage sludge polluted with 10 mg Cd increased root and shoot Cd concentrations by 17 and 25%, respectively. Results indicated the effectiveness of DTPA chelate in reducing Cd phytoremediation with increasing sewage sludge loading rate. This was evidenced by the lowest phytoremediation effectiveness observed for the treatment with the greatest sewage sludge loading (30 t ha-1) and the lowest cadmium pollution (5 mg Cd).
Alvarenga, P., Mourinha, C., Farto, M., Santos, T., Palma, P., Sengo, J., et al., 2015, "Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: Benefits versus limiting factors", Waste Manage., 40, 44-52.
Baghaie, A., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. & Afyuni, M., 2010, "Crop effects on lead fractionation in a soil treated with lead organic and inorganic sources", Journal of Residuals Sciences and Techology, 7, 131-138.
Baghaie, A., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H., Afyuni, M. & Schulin, R., 2011, "The role of organic and inorganic fractions of cow manure and biosolids on lead sorption", Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 57, 11-18.
Balkhair, K.S. & Ashraf, M.A., 2016, "Field accumulation risks of heavy metals in soil and vegetable crop irrigated with sewage water in western region of Saudi Arabia", Saudi Journal Biological Scicences, 23,
Calderon, B. & Fullana, A., 2015, "Heavy metal release due to aging effect during zero valent iron nanoparticles remediation", Water Researh, 83, 1-9.
Cheng, S.-F., Huang, C.-Y., Lin, Y.-C., Lin, S.-C. & Chen, K.-L., 2015, "Phytoremediation of lead using corn in contaminated agricultural land—An in situ study and benefit assessment", Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 111,
Dede, G. & Ozdemir, S., 2016, "Effects of elemental sulphur on heavy metal uptake by plants growing on municipal sewage sludge", Journal of Environmental Management, 166, 103-108.
Ehsan, S., Ali, S., Noureen, S., Mahmood, K., Farid, M., Ishaque, W., et al., 2014, "Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L", Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 106, 164-172.
Huang, H.-J. & Yuan, X.-Z., 2016, "The migration and transformation behaviors of heavy metals during the hydrothermal treatment of sewage sludge", Bioresource Technology, 200, 991-998.
Karami, M., Afyuni, M., Rezainejad, Y. & Schulin, R., 2009, "Heavy metal uptake by wheat from a sewage sludge-amended calcareous soil", Nutr.Cycl. Agroecosys., 83, 51-61.
Kołodziej, B., Antonkiewicz, J., Stachyra, M., Bielińska, E.J., Wiśniewski, J., Luchowska, K., et al., 2015, "Use of sewage sludge in bioenergy production- A case study on the effects on sorghum biomass production", Europen Journal of Agron., 69, 63-74.
Lee, J. & Sung, K., 2014, "Effects of chelates on soil microbial properties, plant growth and heavy metal accumulation in plants", Ecological Engineering, 73, 386-394.
Lee, P.-K., Choi, B.-Y. & Kang, M.-J., 2015, "Assessment of mobility and bio-availability of heavy metals in dry depositions of Asian dust and implications for environmental risk", Chemosphere, 119, 1411-1421.
Li, Q., Guo, X.-Y., Xu, X.-H., Zuo, Y.-B., Wei, D.-P. & Ma, Y.-B., 2012, "Phytoavailability of copper, zinc and cadmium in sewage sludge-amended calcareous soils", Pedosphere, 22, 254-262.
McLean, E.O., 1982, "Soil pH and lime requirement", Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., and Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Mehmood, F., Rashid, A., Mahmood, T. & Dawson, L., 2013, "Effect of DTPA on Cd solubility in soil – accumulation and subsequent toxicity to lettuce", Chemosphere, 90, 1805-1810.
Mohammadi, M., Habibi, D., Ardakani, M. & Asgharzade, A., 2010, "Investigation of Cd adsorption and accumulation from contaminated soil in annual Alfalfa (medicago scutellata)", Journal of Crops Ecophysiology, 2(3), 247-260 (in persian).
Murphy, J. & Riley, J.P., 1962, "A modified single solution method for determination of phosphates in natural waters", Anal. Chim. Acta, 27, 31-36.
Nelson, D.W. & Sommers, L.E., 1982, "Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter", Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., and Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 1. Physical and mineralogical Methods, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Nelson, R.E., 1982, "Carbonate and gypsum", Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., and Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Olsen, S.R. & Sommers, L.E., 1982, "Phosphorus", Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., and Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Rhoades, J.D., 1982, "Cation exchange capacity", Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., and Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Rosestolato, D., Bagatin, R. & Ferro, S., 2015, "Electrokinetic remediation of soils polluted by heavy metals (mercury in particular)", Journal of Chemical Engineering, 264, 16-23.
Sharifi, M., Afyuni, M. & Khoshgoftarmanesh, A., 2010, "Effects of sewage sludge, animal manure, compost and cadmium chloride on cadmium accumulation in corn and alfalfa", Journal of Residuals Sciences and Technology, 7, 219-225.
Singh, A., Agrawal, M. & Marshall, F.M., 2010, "The role of organic vs. inorganic fertilizers in reducing phytoavailability of heavy metals in a wastewater-irrigated area", Ecological Engineering, 36, 1733-1740.
Solgi, E., Esmaili-Sari, A., Riyahi-Bakhtiari, A. & Hadipour, M., 2012, "Soil contamination of metals in the three industrial estates, Arak, Iran", B. Environ. Contam. Tox., 88, 634-638.
Tang, X., Li, X., Liu, X., Hashmi, M.Z., Xu, J. & Brookes, P.C., 2015, "Effects of inorganic and organic amendments on the uptake of lead and trace elements by Brassica chinensis grown in an acidic red soil", Chemosphere, 119, 177-183.
Vafa, H.J., Raiesi, F. & Hosseinpur, A., 2016, "Sewage sludge application strongly modifies earthworm impact on microbial and biochemical attributes in a semi-arid calcareous soil from Iran", Applied Soil Ecol., 100, 45-56.
Wei, X., Hao, M., Shao, M. & Gale, W.J., 2006, "Changes in soil properties and the availability of soil micronutrients after 18 years of cropping and fertilization", Soil Till. Res., 91, 120-130.
Wiszniewska, A., Hanus-Fajerska, E., MuszyŃSka, E. & Ciarkowska, K., 2016, "Natural organic amendments for improved phytoremediation of polluted soils: A review of recent progress", Pedosphere, 26, 1-12.
Xin, X., Zhang, J., Zhu, A. & Zhang, C., 2016, "Effects of long-term (23 years) mineral fertilizer and compost application on physical properties of fluvo-aquic soil in the North China Plain", Soil Till. Res., 156, 166-172.
Yang, Z., Zhang, Z., Chai, L., Wang, Y., Liu, Y. & Xiao, R., 2016, "Bioleaching remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils using Burkholderia sp. Z-90", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 301, 145-152.
Yin, H. & Zhu, J., 2016, "In situ remediation of metal contaminated lake sediment using naturally occurring, calcium-rich clay mineral-based low-cost amendment", Journal of Chemical Engineering, 285, 112-120.
Ylivainio, K., 2010, "Effects of iron (III) chelates on the solubility of heavy metals in calcareous soils", Environm. Pollut., 158, 3194-3200.
Yuan, H., Lu, T., Wang, Y., Chen, Y. & Lei, T., 2016, "Sewage sludge biochar: Nutrient composition and its effect on the leaching of soil nutrients", Geoderma, 267, 17-23.
Zhao, J., Ni, T., Li, J., Lu, Q., Fang, Z., Huang, Q., et al., 2016, "Effects of organic–inorganic compound fertilizer with reduced chemical fertilizer application on crop yields, soil biological activity and bacterial community structure in a rice–wheat cropping system", Applied Soil Ecol., 99, 1-12.
Zhao, X.-L., Li, B.-Q., Ni, J.-P. & Xie, D.-T., 2016, "Effect of four crop straws on transformation of organic matter during sewage sludge composting", Journal of Integr. Agric., 15, 232-240.