کاربرد همزمان ترکیبات PAH و آلکان‌های نرمال در تعیین منشا و سمیت هیدروکربن‌ها در رسوبات سطحی سواحل جنوب غربی دریای خزر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، مازندران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، مازندران، ایران

3 استادیار شرکت ملی نفت ایران، پژوهشگاه صنعت نفت، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هیدروکربن‌های آروماتیک چند حلقه‌ای (PAH)‌ و آلکان‌های نرمال، گروه بزرگی از آلاینده‌های پایدار محیطی را تشکیل می‌دهند. ‌در این مطالعه به‌منظور بررسی پراکنش و منشاء ترکیبات PAH و آلکان‌های نرمال در رسوبات سطحی سواحل جنوب غربی دریای خزر و مقایسه آن‌ها با استاندارهای موجود، تعداد 18 نمونه رسوب سطحی از 2 نیم‌خط عمود بر ساحل استان گیلان (سنگاچین و هشت پر، از اعماق 10، 20 و 50متری) جمع‌آوری شد و نمونه‌ها با استفاده از دستگاه کروماتوگرافی گازی با طیف سنج جرمی مورد آنالیز قرار گرفتند. منشاء آلکان‌های نرمال بر اساس شاخص‌های (95/0-76/0)CPI ، (56/6-3/3) U/R، (42/0-21/0) pr/ph انجام گرفت. همچنین تعیین منشاء ترکیبات PAH به روش نسبت‌‌های تشخیصی (37/13-93/1) LMW/HMW، (7/16-44/11) Phenanthrene/Anthracene، (33/10-69/4) Chrysene/Benzo(a)anthracene، (69/0-53/0)Fluoranthene/Pyrene و (08/0-05/0) MP/P انجام گرفت که بر اساس این نسبت‌ها وجود منشاء غالب پتروژنیک برای هیدروکربن‌ها در منطقه ثابت شد. غلظت کلی 30 ترکیب PAH و آلکان‌های نرمال در رسوبات به‌ترتیب 95/626 تا 53/3842 نانوگرم بر گرم و 8/823 تا 5/3899 میکروگرم بر گرم به‌دست آمد. بر اساس استانداردهای آمریکا سطوح ترکیبات نفتالین، آسنفتیلن، آسنفتن و فلورن بالاتر از غلظت استاندارد ERLs در ایستگاه‌های عمق 50 متری هشت پر و سنگاچین بود، درحالی که بر اساس استانداردهای کانادا، سطوح این ترکیبات در تمام ایستگاه‌های بالاتر از استاندارد ISQGs بود. نکته حائز اهمیت غلظت بالای ترکیب نفتالین به‌عنوان سمی‌ترین ترکیب  PAH در تمام ایستگاه‌ها بود که نیاز به توجه بیشتر به این ترکیب را برای اتخاذ روش‌های صحیح مدیریتی می‌طلبد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Integrated Use of n-Alkanes and PAH to Evaluate the Anthropogenic Hydrocarbon Sources and the Toxicity Assessment of Surface Sediments from the Southwestern Coasts of the Caspian Sea

نویسندگان [English]

  • Golshan Shirneshan 1
  • Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiyari 2
  • Mahmoud Meamariani 3
1 PhD Student Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and normal alkanes form a large group of undegradable environmental contaminats. This study aims to determine the sources and distribution of oil pollution (PAH compounds and normal alkanes) in the sediments of the southwestern coastal areas of the Caspian Sea and to compare their levels with the relevant standards. For this purpose, 18 surface sediment samples were collected from depths of 10, 20, and 50 meters along two transects in the vertical direction located in the coastal areas of Sangachin and Hashtpar (Gilan Province). The samples were then examined using mass-spectrometric gas chromatography. The origins of n-alkanes were identified using CPI index (0.76-0.95), U/R (3.30‒6.57), and Pristane/Phytane (0.21‒0.42). The sources of PAHs were determined using the index ratios of LMW/HMW (1.93‒13.37), Phenanthrene/Anthracene (11.44‒ 16.7), Chrysene/Benzo (a) anthracene (4.69‒10/33), Fluoranthene/Pyrene (0.53‒0.69), and MP/P (0.05‒0.08). Results confirmed the dominant petrogenic source of the hydrocarbons found in the region. The total concentrations of 30 aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs in the sediments ranged from 823.8 to 3899.5 µg/g and from 626.95 to 3842.5362 ng/g, respectively. Comparison of the measured PAH concentrations with US sediment quality guidelines revealed that the levels of naphthalene, fluorine, Acenaphthylene, and Acenaphthene exceeded the ERLs at stations with depths of 50m in Sangachin and Hashtpar while comparisons with Canadian standards indicated that they were higher than PELs at all the stations sampled. A major point of great concern is the high concentration of naphthalene as the most toxic PAH compound, which naturally warrants due attention to adopt appropriate management programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • PAHs
  • n-Alkanes
  • Source identification
  • Caspian Sea
  • SQGs
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