تأثیر قانون هدفمندی یارانه‌ها بر مصرف آب شهری مشهد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 استادیار، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

چکیده

یکی از اهداف قانون هدفمندی یارانه‌ها در ایران مدیریت مصرف آب است که از سال 1389 به مرحله اجرا درآمده است. علیرغم اهمیت این قانون، ارزیابی تأثیرات آن، به‌ویژه درباره کاهش مصرف آب در شبکه‌های شهری به‌ندرت گزارش شده است. در این پژوهش، اثرات اجرای مرحله اول قانون هدفمندی یارانه‌ها بر مصرف آب در شبکه توزیع شهر مشهد برای کاربری‌های مختلف بررسی شده است. به این منظور، داده‌های تولید و مصرف آب این شهر در یک دوره ده‌ساله تحلیل شد و نظرات کارشناسان نیز اخذ گردید. نتایج نشان داد که اگر چه اجرای طرح در سال‌های اولیه باعث کاهش و جابجایی طبقات مصرف آب شده، اما در سال‌های بعد روند افزایشی مصرف ادامه پیدا کرده است. برای کاربری‌های مختلف شهری، مقدار کاهش مصرف آب، با منافع مصرف‌کنندگان ارتباط مستقیم دارد. توزیع درصد کاهش مصرف مشترکین نیز، از تابع چگالی احتمال گاما تبعیت می‌کند. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که در این دوره علیرغم کاهش مصارف مجاز، تولید آب کم نشده و بنابراین استنباط می‌شود که مصارف غیرمجاز افزایش داشته‌اند. در مجموع می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که اثرات قانون هدفمندی برای کاهش مصرف در حد مورد انتظار نبوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impacts of Targeted Subsidy Act on Urban Water Consumption in City of Mashhad

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fereydun Abbaspour 1
  • Mohammad Reza Jalili Ghazizadeh 2
  • Jalal Attari 2
1 MSc Student, Department of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Department of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

An objective of the Targeted Subsidy Act in Iran, which came into effect in 2010 in Iran,  is to manage water demand. Despite the importance of this Act, evaluation of its effects especially on urban water networks has been rarely reported. The present study aims to investigate the impacts of the first phase of its implementation  on the water consumption for different uses in the city of Mashhad. For this purpose, the data records of water consumption over a period of 10 years were analyzed and expert views were collected. Results indicated that although the Act in its early years of implementation led to reduced consumption and a shift was observed in water consumption for different uses, the increasing trend of water consumption was later resumed. It was also found that as reductions in water consumption for different urban uses is directly related to the users’ interests. Water consumption reduction fits the gamma probability density function. Based on the data obtained, water production and supply did not decline during the study period despite the reduction observed by authorized users. It may, therefore, be inferred that illegal connections increased during the study period. Thus, the Act did not seemingly have the impacts, at least as much as expected, on reducing urban water consumption.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Consumption
  • Demand management
  • Urban Water Network
  • Targeted Subsidy Act
  • Mashhad
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