اصلاح سطح کربن فعال گرانوله با روش تصفیه نهایی با هدف نیترات‌زدایی آب آشامیدنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای مهندسی محیط زیست آب ‌و فاضلاب، دانشکده تحصیلات تکمیلی محیط زیست، دانشگاه تهران، تهران

2 دانشجوی دکترای مهندسی محیط زیست آب‌ و فاضلاب، دانشکده تحصیلات تکمیلی محیط زیست، دانشگاه تهران، تهران

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکده تحصیلات تکمیلی محیط زیست، دانشگاه تهران، تهران

چکیده

حضور نیترات در آب‌های زیرزمینی در دو دهه گذشته، نگرانی‌های زیادی را برای مدیران و نیز مصرف‌کنندگان آب به‌ویژه در بخش شرب و بهداشت ایجاد کرده است. از میان روش‌های مختلف حذف نیترات، استفاده از روش جذب به‌علت بازدهی بالا و همچنین ملاحظات اقتصادی بیشتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. در این تحقیق، از کربن فعال صنعتی با اندازه دانه‌های 4/0 تا 59/0 میلی‌متر (مش 30-40) به‌عنوان جاذب اولیه به‌منظور حذف نیترات از محیط آبی استفاده شد. به‌منظور افزایش راندمان حذف نیترات این جاذب، چند مرحله بهینه‌سازی شیمیایی مختلف- شامل اسیدشویی، شستشو با سدیم‌هیدروکسید، اصلاح با پلیمر کاتیونی- در نظر گرفته شد. شستشو با سدیم هیدروکسید به همراه اصلاح با سورفکتانت کاتیونی سیتیل تری‌‌میتیل بروماید بیشترین راندمان حذف نیترات را در بین دیگر روش‌های به‌کار رفته از خود نشان داد. پس از مشخص شدن مؤثرترین روش تصفیه نهایی، آزمایش‌های جذب-واجذب گاز نیتروژن، FTIR، SEM برای تعیین مشخصات فیزیکی- ‌شیمیایی و ویژگی سطح کربن فعال انجام شد. آزمایش‌های سینتیک نشان داد که جذب در مدت زمان 120 دقیقه به حالت تعادلی خود رسیده و معادله سینتیکی شبه درجه دوم بیشترین مطابقت رابا داده‌ها داشت. بیشترین جذب نیترات در حدود 34/15 میلی‌گرم برگرم با پیروی از ایزوترم لانگمیر به‌دست آمد. ارتباط زیادی بین جذب نیترات و تغییرات pH مشاهده نشد. بیشترین کاهش در جذب نیترات در حضور یون سولفات و سپس به‌ترتیب برای یون‌های کلراید، فسفات و کربنات مشاهده شد. می‌توان گفت که جاذب تصفیه‌شده با روش شستشو با سدیم هیدروکسید به همراه اصلاح سورفکتانت کاتیونی دارای توانایی قابل ملاحظه‌ای به منظور جذب نیترات است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modification of Granular Activated Carbon with Post-Treatment to Enhance Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Mazarji 1
  • Mohammad Sabouhi 2
  • Behnoush Amin zadeh gohar rizi 3
  • Majid Baghdadi 3
  • Alireza Pardakhti 3
1 PhD Student of Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
2 PhD Student of Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The presence of nitrate in groundwater resources has instigated increasing concerns among both managers and users of, especially, drinking and sanitation water. From among the different nitrate removal methods, the adsorption method has attracted more attention thanks to its high removal efficieny and economical operation. Commercial activated carbon ranging in mesh size from 30‒40 was utilized to remove nitrate from an aqueous solution. In order to enhance nitrate uptake, different acid, alkaline, and cationic surfactant post-treatments were examined. Alkaline post-treatment followed by cationic surfactant modification was found to yield the best efficiency. FTIR, SEM, and N2 adsorption/desorption were carried out to determine the physical and chemical properties of activated carbon. Kinetic tests revealed that adsortption reached its equilibrium state after 12 hiurs and that the pseudo-second order and Freundlich models. Based on the Langmuir model, maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 15.34 and pH had an insignificant effect on nitrate adsorption. Moreover, the highest decline in nitrate adsorption was observed in the presence of sulfate followed by chloride, phosphate, and carbonate. Based on the results obtained, the modified activated carbon accompanied by washing with sodiuym hydroxide and modified cationic surfactant post-treatment might be recommended for use in adsorption processes as a promising innovative technology for nitrate removal from drinking water.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adsorption
  • Nitrate
  • Cationic
  • Post-Treatment
  • Surfactant
  • Activated carbon
  • Alkaline Post-Treatment
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