حفاظت از آب‌ها در منازعات مسلحانه از منظر قواعد حقوق بشردوستانه بین‌المللی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

چکیده

در منازعات مسلحانه، منابع آبی در معرض تخریب و آلودگی گسترده قرار دارند. امروزه حفاظت از آب و منابع آبی در هنگام بروز منازعات مسلحانه اهمیت زیادی دارد. منابع آبی می‌توانند به‌عنوان ابزار جنگی استفاده شوند، همچنین منبع مهمی برای تداوم شرایط حیاتی و بقای غیرنظامیان به‌شمار می‌روند. این سوال اساسی مطرح است که در حقوق بشردوستانه چه قواعدی برای حفاظت از آب‌ها در خلال منازعات مسلحانه وجود دارد؟ به‌اختصار می‌توان گفت، در مجموعه حقوق بشردوستانه بین‌المللی هرچند قواعد اندکی برای حمایت از آب‌ها در منازعات مسلحانه وجود دارد، ولی می‌توان به برخی از قواعد و اسناد در این زمینه اشاره کرد. از جمله مهم‌ترین این قواعد می‌توان به، ممنوعیت مسموم کردن آب، ممنوعیت حمله به تأسیسات آبی، تضمین حق بر آب آشامیدنی اسیران جنگی، ممنوعیت استفاده از نیروی آب به‌عنوان سلاح مخرب و در نهایت ممنوعیت حمله به آن دسته از منابع آبی که برای حیات و بقای جمعیت غیرنظامی لازم و ضروری است، اشاره کرد. هدف اساسی این پژوهش این است که برای نخستین بار در ادبیات فارسی حقوقی به بررسی و تحلیل قواعد حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه ناظر بر حمایت از آب‌ها بپردازد و برای مخاطبان اصلی یعنی دولت‌ها و حقوق‌دانان بین‌المللی زمینه تدوین و توسعه قواعد را فراهم کند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Water Protection in Armed Conflicts from the Perspective of International Humanitarian Law

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Mashhadi
Assoc. Prof., of Public and International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water resources in the armed conflict are facing extensive destruction and pollution. Today, protection of water and water resources has become increasingly important during armed conflict. Water resources can be used as a means of warfare, and are also an important source of sustaining civilian life and survival. The key question is, what are the rules in humanitarian law to protect waters during armed conflict? In short, although there are few rules for protecting waters in armed conflict, there are some rules and documents in international humanitarian law. The most important of these rules are: prohibition of water pollution, prohibition of attack on water facilities, guarantee of drinking water rights of prisoners, prohibition of using water as a destructive weapon, and finally the prohibition of attacks on those water resources, which is necessary for the survival of the civilian population. The main purpose of this paper is that for the first time in Persian literature review and analysis of the rules of international humanitarian law concerning the protection of waters and, for the main audience of governments and international lawyers to develop and provide these rules.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water
  • Armed conflicts
  • International Humanitarian Law
Amoli, Sh.T., Zeinuddin B. A. 1990. Al-Rawzi al-Bahi Fei al-Mashimi al-Mashqi , 10 volumes, Arbitration Bookstore, Qom, Iran. (In Arabic)
Azimi Shooshtari, A. A. 2013. An overview of humanitarian law in Islamic jurisprudence. In Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Islam and International Humanitarian Law, Center for Comparative Studies of Islam and International Humanitarian Law, by Gholamreza Jalali, Astan Qods Razavi Pub., first 1st Ed. (In Persian)
Barlow, M. 2009. Blue covenant: the global water crisis and the coming battle for the right to water. New Press Pub., New York, USA.
Beaumont, P. 2000. The 1997 UN convention on the law of non-navigational uses of international watercourses: its strengths and weaknesses from a water management perspective and the need for new workable guidelines. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 16(4), 475-495.
Boutruche, T. 2000. Le statut de l'eau en droit international humanitaire. International Review of the Red Cross, 82(840), 887-916. (In French)
Dinstein, Y., 2014. Non-international armed conflicts in international law. Cambridge University Press. UK.
Doswald-Beck, L. 1995. The San Remo manual on international law applicable to armed conflicts at sea. American Journal of International Law, 89(1), 192-208.
Fahimi, A. & Mashhadi, A. 2017. Protecting the environment in armed conflict from the perspective of Islam and international humanitarian law, Khorsandi Pub., Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Gleick, P. H. 2019. Water as a weapon and casualty of conflict: freshwater and international humanitarian law. Water Resources Management, 33(5), 1737-1751.
Guille, N. 1984. La mainmise israélienne sur l'eau dans les territoires occupés. Revue D'études Palestiniennes, 11, 61. (In French)
Hankertz, J. M. & Doswald-Beck, L. 2008. Customary humanitarian international law, translated by the office of international affairs of the judiciary of the islamic republic of Iran and the international committee of the Red Cross, 1st Edition. Majd Pub. Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Hosseini Azad, S. A. & Mohammadi, M. 2013. Environmental protection in armed conflict from the perspective of international law, Legal Research Pub. Vol. 1, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
International Law Association. 1967. Helsinki rules on the uses of the waters of international rivers. Committee on the uses of the waters of international rivers, International Law Association.
Jorgensen, N. 2007. The protection of freshwater in armed conflict. Journal of International Law and Internaitonl Retations, 3, 57.
Kaponeura, D. A. 2013. Principles of water law and management, translated by Abdollahi, M. & Abbas Absi, A. Publications of His Mayors. (In Persian)
Lorenz, F. M. & Shaver, G. 2003. The protection of water facilities under international law (No. 1). UNESCO.
Menani, M. R. 2010a. Les conflits transfrontaliers sur l’eau: tendances actuelles. Science et Changements Planétaires/Sécheresse, 21(1), 22-27. (In French)
Menani, M. R. 2010b. Retrospective sur les conflits transfrontaliers sur l’eau. Révue Scientifique du Réseau International de Gestion des Conflits Environnementaux, 1(1), 219-232. (In French)
Neff, S. 2012. Hugo Grotius on the law of war and peace. Cambridge University Press. UK.
Rogers, A. & Malber, P 2008. Practical Rules of Armed Conflict Law. Translated by the national committee on humanitarian law, Amirkabir Institute of Pub., Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Shuval, H. I. 1992. Approaches to resolving the water conflicts between Israel and her neighbors-a regional water-for-peace plan. Water International, 17(3), 133-143.
Sweney, G. 2005. Saving lives: the principle of distinction and the realities of modern war. International Law., 39(3), 733-758.
Tabatabaei Yazdi, S. A. 1989. al-Maktassar fi Nanaifa, Marashi Library Pub. Qom, Iran (In Arabic).
Tignino, M. 2016. Water during and after armed conflicts: what protection in international law? Brill Research Perspectives in International Water Law, 1(4), 1-111.
Zemmali, A. 1995. La protection de l'eau en période de conflit armé. International Review of the Red Cross, 77(815), 601-615. (In French)
Ziaie Bigdeli, M. R. 2013. International Humanitarian Law, Ganj Danesh Library Pub., 2nd Ed. Tehran, Iran.
(In Persian)