عنوان مقاله [English]
Removal of particles by filter is a complex process in water treatment. Several factors are involved such as shape and size of filter grains, suspended particle concentration, filtration velocity and filter bed depth. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of filtration velocity and rapid sand filter bed depth on removal efficiency of suspended particles. Four filtration velocities (0.086, 0.11, 0.14 and 0.17 cm/sec) and three depths of filter bed (25, 50 and 60 cm) were used in this study. Kaolinite concentration in inlet suspension above the filter bed was 100 ppm in each experiment. Silica sand was used as the filter medium with an average diameter of 0.51 mm. The results showed that removal efficiency of suspended particles was greater in low filtration velocity (i.e. 0.086 cm/sec) than high filtration velocities in the filters with specific bed depth. Removal efficiency of suspended particles increased with increasing filter bed depth from 25 to 50 cm in all of the experiments but there was no significant difference between obtained results in the filter bed with 50 and 60 cm depths (a=0.01). Head loss development was greater in low velocities than high velocities. Head loss development was greater in 25 cm depth than 50 and 60 cm depths in all of the filtration velocities. Favorable depth and filtration velocity was obtained 50 cm and 0.17 cm/sec, respectively.