بررسی غلظت عناصر سنگین در آب و ماهی‌های برداشت شده از دریاچه سد (مطالعه موردی: استان همدان، سد کلان ملایر)

نوع مقاله : مطالعه موردی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه محیط‌زیست، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد همدان، همدان، ایران

2 استادیار علوم خاک، گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه سید جمال الدین اسدآبادی، اسدآباد، ایران

3 استادیار گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

چکیده

فلزات سنگین مشکل بزرگی در محیط‌زیست هستند و به‌علت سمیّت و توانایی زیادی که در تجمع بدن موجودات زنده دارند، به یک مشکل جهانی تبدیل شده‌اند. با توجه به اهمیت موضوع، این پژوهش با هدف بررسی غلظت عناصر سنگین آرسنیک، کادمیم، کروم، مس، نقره، منگنز، نیکل و روی در نمونه‌های آب و ماهی‌های برداشت شده از دریاچه سد کلان ملایر در استان همدان انجام شد. نمونه‌های آب و ماهی 5 بار در ماه‌های اردیبهشت، خرداد، شهریور، مهر و بهمن از 19 مکان از دریاچه سد کلان ملایر جمع‌آوری شدند. نمونه‌های آب و ماهی که شامل گونه‌های Vimba vimba و Cyprinus carpio هستند به آزمایشگاه منتقل شدند. نمونه‌های ماهی با 4 میلی‌لیتر اسید نیتریک و 1 میلی‌لیتر اسید پرکلریک هضم شدند. مقدار فلزات سنگین در آب و ماهی با استفاده از دستگاه ICP-AES تعیین شد و از نرم‌افزار SAS و آزمون دانکن 05/0 برای آنالیز داده‌ها استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین غلظت فلزات مورد بررسی از حد مجاز بیان شده در استانداردهای WHO، FAO، و USEPA برای مصارف شرب کمتر است. میانگین غلظت روی و کروم به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از سایر فلزات سنگین در نمونه‌های آب است. همچنین نتایج بیانگر غلظت بیشتر فلزات سنگین به‌استثنای فلز روی، در فصل بهار نسبت به سایر فصول است. میانگین غلظت فلزات سنگین در ماهی کپور در فصل بهار به‌ترتیب Zn> Ni> Cu> Cd> Hg> As> Mn  است. هم‌بستگی معنی‌داری بین تجمع فلزات سنگین در ماهی و غلظت فلزات سنگین در نمونه‌های آب وجود دارد. نتایج نشان داد که غلظت فلزات سنگین در بافت نمونه‌های ماهی با غلظت فلزات سنگین در نمونه‌های آب ارتباط دارد و انباشت فلزات سنگین در ماهی با افزایش غلظت فلزات سنگین در نمونه‌های آب افزایش می‌یابد. غلظت عناصر سنگین مورد بررسی در ماهی‌ها از حد مجاز بیان شده در استانداردهای WHO، FAO کمتر است و هیچ‌گونه مشکلی برای مصارف انسانی ایجاد نخواهد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Water and Fish Samples from Dam Lake (Case Study: Hamadan Province, Kalan Malayer Dam)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahare Lorestani 1
  • Hajar Merrikhpour 2
  • Mehrdad Cheraghi 1
  • Lima Tayebi 3
1 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Environment, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran
2 Assist. Prof. of Soil Science, Dept. of Agriculture, Sayyed Jamaleddin Asadabadi University, Asadabad, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Fisheries, Collage of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
چکیده [English]

Heavy metals are a major environmental problem and have become a global problem due to their high toxicity and their ability to accumulate in the body of living organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Gago-Ferrero et al.), copper (Cu), silver (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in samples of water and fish from the Malayer Dam in Hamadan Province, Iran. Samples of water and fish were collected in five steps (in May, June, September, October, February) from 19 locations in Kalan dam route of Malayer, in Hamedan, Iran. Water and fish species including Vimba vimba and Cyprinus carpio species were transferred to the laboratory. Fish samples were digested by 4 ml HNO3 and 1 ml HClO4. The amounts of heavy metals in water and fish were determined using ICP-AES and Duncan's test (0.05) was used for data analysis with SAS software. Results showed that the mean concentrations of the studied heavy metals were lower than the WHO, FAO, and USEPA guidelines for drinking water. The mean concentrations of Zn and Cr were significantly higher than other heavy metals in water samples. The results also showed that the highest concentrations of heavy metals (except Zn) were observed in spring than other seasons. The mean concentration of the heavy metals for Cyprinus carpio followed the sequence Cr≥ Zn>Ni>Cu>Cd>Hg>As>Mn in first sampling. There were significant correlations between all heavy metals’ accumulation in the Cyprinus carpio fish with heavy metals concentration in water samples. The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals in fish samples was correlated with the concentration of heavy metals in water samples and the accumulation of heavy metals in fish increased with increasing concentrations of heavy metals in water samples. The concentrations of heavy metals studied in fish are lower than those limits in the WHO and FAO guidelines and will not cause any harm in human consumption.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metal
  • Water
  • Dam Lake
  • fish
  • Biomagnification
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