بررسی مقدار جذب و تجمع کادمیم در اندام‌های مختلف چهار گیاه زراعی (گندم، اسفناج، خیار و هویج)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی مؤسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

استفاده غیر اصولی از فاضلاب‌های صنعتی باعث آلودگی محیط‌ زیست به فلزات سنگین شده است. تجمع فلزات سنگین در خاک و انتقال آن به محصولات زراعی به‌عنوان یکی از عوارض مهم بهداشتی و محیط ‌زیستی استفاده غیر اصولی از پساب‌ها و فاضلاب‌های صنعتی در مناطقی از کشور مطرح است. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف غلظت کادمیم خاک بر مقدار جذب و تجمع آن در اندام‌های مختلف چهار گیاه زراعی رایج در کشور (گندم، اسفناج، خیار و هویج)، به‌صورت یک طرح آزمایشی فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک‌های کاملاً تصادفی در سه تیمار کادمیم در خاک شامل غلظت‌های صفر (تیمار شاهد)، 50 و 100 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم خاک، در چهار تکرار به اجرا در آمد. خاک مورد استفاده از مزرعه چهارصد هکتاری مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر (کرج) انتخاب و بعد از دوبار الک کردن با مش دو میلی‌متر و افزودن نیترات کادمیم و مخلوط نمودن کامل تهیه شد. برای کاشت از گلدان‌های پلاستیکی استوانه‌ای به قطر 40 و ارتفاع 60 سانتی‌متر استفاده شد. مقدار آب مورد نیاز با استفاده از روش پنمن مانتیث برآورد شد. در پایان فصل زراعی از بخش‌های مختلف گیا‌هان برای سنجش مقدار تجمع کادمیم نمونه‌برداری و آزمایش به‌عمل آمد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که مقدار تجمع کادمیم با افزایش غلظت کادمیم در محیط ریشه نسبت مستقیم داشته و به جز تیمار شاهد، در سایر تیمارها بیش از حد استاندارد مصارف انسانی بود. ترتیب تجمع کادمیم در بخش‌های مختلف گیاهان مورد بررسی به شرح زیر بود: ریشه: خیار، هویج، گندم، اسفناج، برگ و ساقه: هویج، خیار، گندم،  اسفناج، میوه یا محصول: گندم، خیار،  هویج، اسفناج، پوست میوه: گندم، اسفناج، هویج، خیار.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Cd Uptake and Transfer in Different Parts of Wheat, Spinach, Cucumber and Carrot Crops

نویسنده [English]

  • Bahman Yargholi
Faculty Member of Agricultural Engineering and Technology Research Institute, Tehran University, Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Environmental pollution due to the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and their subsequent transfer to crops is a global concern that arises from improper application of industrial wastewaters. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of soil Cd on its accumulation rate in the various organs of four common crops in Iran (namely, wheat, spinach, cucumber, and carrot). The experiment was performed in a factorial design with random blocks including 3 treatments with 0 (control), 50, and 100 mg/kg.soil in 4 replicates. Soil was collected from the farm belonging to the Research Institute for Plant and Seed Breeding (Karaj) and filtered twice using 2-mm sieves before Cadmium Nitrate (Cd(NO3)2) was added and completely mixed. Crops were planted in plastic pots 40 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. The water demand was determined using the Jenman Mantite method. At the end of the growing season, samples were taken from various organs of the crops and their Cd concentrations were measured. The results revealed a direct relationship between Cd accumulation and Cd concentration in the root region. All the treatments other than the control exhibited Cd concentrations higher than the standard limits for human consumption. Cadmium accumulation in the different organs of the crops exhibited the following orders: Root: Cucumber<Carrot<wheat<Spinach; Stem and Leaf: Carrot<Cucumber<wheat<Spinach; Fruit: wheat<Cucumber<Carrot<Spinach; and Fruit peel: wheat<Spinach<Carrot<Cucumber.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Cadmium
  • Crop Uptake
  • Industiral Wastewater

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