The Effect of Different Concentrations of Phenol on Anaerobic Stabilization Pond Performance in Treating Petroleum Refinery Wastewater

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assoc. Prof. of Environmental Health Eng., Faculty Member of Social Development and Health Promotion Research Centre, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah

2 M.Sc. Student of Environmental Health Eng., Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah

3 Assoc. Prof. of Environmental Health Eng., Faculty Member of d Health Research Centre, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah


In this study the efficiency of anaerobic stabilization pond for treating oil refinery wastewater at different concentrations of phenol is investigated. The anaerobic stabilization pond (ASP) was built from fiberglass plats (0.2m×1m×1m and 6mm thickness). The experimental apparatus was performed at HRT (2d) with hydraulic loading rate 95L/day. After inoculation of the biomass, reactor was run at different concentrations of phenol (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/L). Sampling is carried out from effluent after achievement of steady state condition at all experimental tests. The samples for the determination of NH3, PO4 and Phenol, were analyzed using a spectrophotometer (Varian, UV-120-02). In addition, other parameters such as TCOD, SCOD, TBOD, SBOD, and pH were determined using standard methods. The results showed that the efficiency of system reduced at phenol concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 mg/L. The maximum and minimum removal rates of BOD and COD were 71.75±8.14; 76.07± 10.94 and 53.5±6.03, 55.63±3.47 by the system respectively at phenol concentrations of 100 and 400 mg/l. The optimum condition for phenol removal (89.82% and 55.86%) was determined with phenol concentrations of 100 mg/L and 400 mg/L, respectively. This study showed a comprehensive efficiency of anaerobic stabilization pond as a promising system to eliminate different concentrations of Phenol, COD and BOD, however increase of Phenol concentration to 400 mg/L was decreasing of system efficiency due to phenol toxicity for biomass.


1- Sullivan, B.G., Garry, G.R., and Krieger, G.R. ( 2001). Clinical environmental health and toxic exposure, 2nd Ed., Lippin Cott Williams and Wilkins, USA.
2- Rappoport, Z. (2003). The Chemistry of Phenols, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Canada.
3- Cohrssen, B., and Charles, H. (2001). Patties toxicology, 5th Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Canada.
4- Patterson, J.W. (2003). Wastewater treatment technology, Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc., USA.
5- Koutny, M., Ruzicka, J., and Chlachula, J. (2003). “Screening for phenol- degrading bacteria in the prisitine soils of south Siberia.” J. of Applied Soil Ecology, 23, 79-83.
6- Watanabe, K., Yamamoto, S.H., Hino, S., and Harayama, S. (1998). “Population dynamics of phenol- degrading bacteria in activated sludge determined by GyrB-Targeted quantitative PCR.” J. of Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65, 1203-1209.
7- Whiteley, A.S., Wiles, S., Lilley, K., Philip, J., and Babailey, M.J. (2002). “Ecological and physiological analyses of pseudomonad species within a phenol remediation system.” J. of Microbiological Methods, 44, 79-88.
8- Nicell, J.A. (1994). “Kinetics of horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization and precipitation of aqueous 4-chlorophenol.” J. of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 60, 203-215.
9- Singh, N., and Singh, J. (2002). “An enzymatic method for removal of phenol from industrial effluent.” J. of Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol., 32(2), 127-133.
10- ErsÖz, A., Denizli, A., Izzet, S., Ayca, A., Sibel, D., and Ridvan, S. (2004). “Removal of phenlic compounds with nitrophenol-imprinted polymer based on T-T and hydrogen-bonding interactions.” J. of Separation and Purification Technology, 38, 173-179.
11- Kinsley, C., and Nicell, J.A. (2000). “Treatment of aqueous phenol with soybean peroxidase in the presence of polyethylene glycol.” J. of Bioresource Tech., 22, 139-146.
12- Dyer, J.C., and Mignone, N.A. (1993). Handbook of industrial residues, Vol. 1, Environmental Engineering Series, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, N.J., USA.
13- Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., and Stensel, H.D. (2003). Wastewater engineering treatment and reuse, 4th Ed., Metcalf and Eddy, McGraw-Hill, Inc., USA.
14- Freeman, H. (2003). Standard handbook of hazardous waste treatment and disposal, McGraw-Hill, USA.
15- Akbal, F., and Nur, O.A. (2003). “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol.” J. of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 83, 295-302.
16- Wang, K.H., Hsieh, Y.H., Chou, M.Y., and Chang, C.Y. (1999). “Photocatalytic degradation of 2- chloro and 2-nitrophenol by titanium dioxide suspensions in aqueous solution.” J. of Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 21, 1-8.
17- Kehma, H., and Reed, G. (2003). Biotechnology, 2nd Ed., WIEY- VCH, Weinhem, Germany.
18- Tchobanoglous, G. (2003). Wastewater engineering, McGraw- Hill, USA.
19- EPA. (1997). Wastewater treatement facilities for sewered small communites, Environmental Protection Agency, USA. 625/1 .77-99.
20- Mara, D.D. (1991). “A conversation.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 6, 34-38. (In Persian)
21- Pooreshaq Naeini, M. (1999). “The evauation of wastewater stabilization ponds efficiencyin Isfahan province.” M.Sc. Desertation, Isfahan University of Tech., Isfahan. (In Persian)
22- John, B., Sullivan, J.R., Gary, R., and Krieger, M.D. (1992). Clinical environmental health and toxic exposures, 2nd Ed., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, USA.
23- Dezuane, J. (1997). Handbook of drinking water quality, 2nd Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
24- Roberts, E.R. (1992). Bioremediation of peteroleum contaminate sites, CRC Press, USA.
25- Mara, D.D., and Pearson, H.W. (1998). Design manual for waste stabilization ponds in Mediterranean countries, Lagoon Technology International, Leeds, UK.
26- Eckenfelder, W.W. (1970). Water quality engineering For practising engineers, Barnes and Noble Pub. New York ,USA.
27- Karia, G.L., Christian, R.A. (1991). Wastewater engineering treatment, Disposal, Reuse, 3rd Ed., Metcalf and Eddy, Mcgraw-Hill International Edition Engineering Series, USA.
28- Silva, S.A., and Mara, D.D. (1970). Treatmentos biologicos de aguas residuarias: Lagoas de estabili zacao (Biological wastewater treatment: Stabilization pond), ABES, Rio de Janeiro , BraziL
29- Mara, D.D. (1976). Sewage treatment in hot climates, John Wiley, London , UK.
30- APHA. AWWA. WEF. (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th Ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, USA.
31- Moreno, M.D. (1990). “A tracer study of the hydraulic of facultative waste stabilization ponds.” J. of Wat. Res., 24, 1025-1030.
32- Papadopoulos, Α., Parissopoulos, G., Papadopoulos, F., and Karteris, Α. (2001). “Variations of COD/BOD5 ratio at different units of a wastewater stabilization pond pilot treatment facility.” 7th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology Ermoupolis, Syros Island, Greecept.
33- Mahassen, M., and Azza, M. (2008). “Performance evaluation of a waste sabilization pond in a rural area in Egypt.” American J. of Environmental Sciences, 4(4), 316-325.
34- Farzadkia, M. (2004). “A survey on the wastewater stabilization efficiency in treating Kermanshah slaughter wastewater.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 51, 10-15. (In Persian)
35- Gloyna, E.F. (1981). Waste stabilization pond, Water Health Organization, Genvea.
36- Tyagi, A.R.D., Tran, F.T., and Chowdhury, A.K.M.M. (1993).“A pilot study of biodegradation of petroleum refinery wastewater in a polyurethane-attached RBC.” J. of Process Biochemistry, 28, 75-82.
37- Alemzadeh, I., Vossoughi, F., and Houshmandi, M. (2002). “Phenol biodegradation by rotating biological contactor.” J. of Biochemical Engineering, 11, 19-23.
38- Rahmani, R. (2006). “A survey on the possibility of photocatalistic degradation of phenol using UV/TIO2 process.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 58, 32-37. (In Persian)
39- Ramos, M.S., Davila, J.L., Esparza, F., Thalasso, F., Alba, J., Guerrero, A.L., and Avelar, F.J. (2005). “Treatment of wastewater containing high phenol concentrations using stabilisation ponds enriched with activated sludge.” J. of Water Science and Technology, 51(12), 257-260.
40- Avelar, F.J., Martı´nez-Pereda, P., Thalasso, F., Rodrı´guez-Va´zquez, R., and Esparza-Garcı´a, F.J. (2001). “Upgrading of facultative waste stabilisation ponds under high organic load.” J. of Biotechnol. Lett., 23, 1115-1118.
41- Nahid, P., and Kazemi, A. (2004). “Bioactivity improvement in activated sludge treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 50, 23-28. (In Persian)
42- Shahmansoori, M., and Movahedian, A. (1994). Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 1, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Pub., Isfahan. (In Persian)