عنوان مقاله [English]
Pharmaceuticals and micro pollutions have been regularly flushing into water resources through municipal and industrial wastewater plants. This problem therefore, needs more attention. Conventional water and wastewater treatment plants couldn’t eliminate these pollutions and it needs advanced treatment, otherwise humans and animals’ health would be in danger by them. Advance oxidation processes have the ability of removal of Pharmaceuticals like Carbamazepine. And in this study, Carbamazepine removal has been examined through Electrochemical Peroxidation process at optimum pH(e.g. pH=3), also other effective operation conditions include contact time, current density, hydrogen peroxide and proportion of iron to hydrogen peroxide have been optimized through surface response method by Design Expert software. After experiments was completed, results have been analyzed and correlation coefficient of 94 percent computed, and proportion of iron to hydrogen peroxide has been identified as the most effective parameter in Carbamazepine removal. To achieve a removal more than 90%, 13 solutions have been predicted by different operation conditions. The best scenario with 98% desirability, was 67.5 minutes contact time, 26 mM hydrogen peroxide concentration, 14.75 mA current density and 0.002 proportion of iron to hydrogen peroxide.
Alalm, M. G., Tawfik, A. & Ookawara, S. 2015. Degradation of four pharmaceuticals by solar Photo-Fenton process: kinetics and costs estimation. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 3, 46-51.
Arbabi, M., Golshani, N. & Sedehi, M. 2017. Optimization removal of ciprofloxacin with photo fenton process using Response Surface. Journal of Shahrekord Uuniversity of Medical Sciences, 19, 17-31. (In Persian)
Arzate-Salgado, S.-Y., Morales-Perez, A.-A., Solís-López, M. & Ramírez-Zamora, R.-M. 2016. Evaluation of metallurgical slag as a fenton-type photocatalyst for the degradation of an emerging pollutant: Diclofenac. Catalysis Today, 266, 126-135.
Bautista, P., Mohedano, A., Casas, J., Zazo, J. & Rodriguez, J. 2008. An overview of the application of fenton oxidation to industrial wastewaters treatment. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology: International Research in Process, Environmental and Clean Technology, 83, 1323-1338.
Brillas, E., Sires, I. & Oturan, M. A. 2009. Electro-Fenton process and related electrochemical technologies based on Fenton’s reaction chemistry. Chemical Reviews, 109, 6570-6631.
De la cruz, N., Esquius, L., Grandjean, D., Magnet, A., Tungler, A., De alencastro, L. et al., 2013. Degradation of emergent contaminants by UV, UV/H2O2 and neutral Photo-Fenton at pilot scale in a domestic wastewater treatment plant. Water Research, 47, 5836-5845.
Domínguez, J. R., González, T., Palo, P. & Cuerda-Correa, E. M. 2012. Fenton+ Fenton-like integrated process for carbamazepine degradation: optimizing the system. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 51, 2531-2538.
Dwivedi, K., Morone, A., Chakrabarti, T. & Pandey, R. 2016. Evaluation and optimization of Fenton pretreatment integrated with granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration for carbamazepine removal from complex wastewater of pharmaceutical industry. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6(3), 3681-3689.
Gutierrez, C., Hansen, H. K., Nuñez, P., Jensen, P. E. & Ottosen, L. M. 2010. Electrochemical peroxidation as a tool to remove arsenic and copper from smelter wastewater. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 40, 1031-1038.
Liu, W.-W., TU, X.-Y., Wang, X.-P., Wang, F.-Q. & Li, W. 2012. Pretreatment of coking wastewater by acid out, micro-electrolysis process with in situ electrochemical peroxidation reaction. Chemical Engineering Journal, 200, 720-728.
Majidi, S., Rahmani, A., Samadi, M. & Shokoohi, R. 2015. Determination of sono-electrofenton effeciency in removal of ciprofloxacin antibiotic from aqueous solutions. Scientific Journal of Ilam Unviersity of Medical Sciences, 23(6), 85-96. (In Persian)
Michael, I., Frontistis, Z. & Fatta-kassinos, D. 2013. Removal of pharmaceuticals from environmentally relevant matrices by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, 62, 245-407.
Mirzaei, A., Chen, Z., Haghighat, F. & Yerushalmi, L. 2017. Removal of pharmaceuticals from water by homo/heterogonous Fenton-type processes–A review. Chemosphere, 174, 665-688.
Nasuhoglu, D., Rodayan, A., Berk, D. & Yargeau, V. 2012. Removal of the antibiotic levofloxacin (LEVO) in water by ozonation and TiO2 photocatalysis. Chemical Engineering Journal, 189, 41-48.
Yazdanbakhsh, A. R., Manshouri, M., Sheikhmohammadi, A. & Sardar, M. 2012. Investigation the efficiency of combined coagulation and advanced oxidation by Fenton process in the removal of clarithromycin antibiotic COD. Journal of Water and Wastewater, 23(2), 22-29. (In Persian)