عنوان مقاله [English]
In this study potential usefulness of date-palm leaf (Phoenix dactylifera) ashes as an inexpensive adsorbent for Pb(II) ions has been demonstrated. For this purpose, some variables such as pH, Pb (II) ion concentrations, adsorbent dosage and temperature in batch systems were investigated. The obtained results showed that the optimum pH for removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions was equal to 5. Also, the adsorption efficiency at 60 minutes with 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/l Pb(II) concentrations were 99.46, 91.47, 80.49, 69.62, 57.34 and 51.29% respectively, by 0.5 g/l adsorbent dosage and at temperature of 20˚C. Consideration of adsorbent in this study showed that with increasing of adsorbent dosage from 0.1 to 2g/l the adsorption rate increased. Also, thermodynamic consideration showed that adsorption process was dependent to temperature and results showed that removal efficiency order was 40 ˚C > 30˚C > 20 ˚C. This study concluded date-palm leaf ashes, have good potential as an adsorbent to remove toxic heavy metals like lead from aqueous solutions.
1. Wang, X.S., Lu, Z.P., Miao, H.H., He, W., and Shen, H.L. (2010). “Kinetics of Pb (II) adsorption on black carbon derived from wheat residue.” J. of Chemical Engineering, 166 (3), 986-993.
2. Machida, M., Kikuchi, Y., Aikawa, M., and Tatsumoto, H. (2004). “Kinetics of adsorption and desorption of Pb(II) in aqueous solution on activated carbon by two-site adsorption model.” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 240, 179-186.
3. Li, X-M., Zheng, W., Wang, D.B., Yang, Q., Cao, J.B., and Yue, X. (2010). “Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto modified areca waste: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies.” Desalination, 258,148-153.
4. Ghorbani, F., Younesi, H., Ghasempouri, S.M., Zinatizadeh, A.A., Amini, M., and Daneshi, A. (2008). “Application of response surface methodology for optimization of cadmium biosorption in an aqueous solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.” J. of Chemical Engineering, 145, 267-275.
5. Amini, M., Younesi, H., and Bahramifar, N. (2009). “Statistical modeling and optimization of the cadmium biosorption process in an aqueous solution using Aspergillus niger.” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 337, 67-73.
6. Marsh, H., and Rodríguez-Reinoso, F. (2006). Activated carbon, Elsevier Ltd., UK.
7. Chung, J.S., and Kim, D.J., Ahn, W.S., Ko, J.H., and Cheong, W.J. (2004). “Synthesis, characterization, and applications of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica.” Korean J. Chem Eng, 21, 132-139.
8. Zulkali, M.M.D, Ahmad, A.L, Norulakmal, N.H., and Oryza Sativa, L. (2009). “Husk as heavy metal adsorbent: Optimization with lead as model solution.” Bioresource Technology, 97, 21-25.
9. Singh, K.K., Talat, M., and Hasan, S.H. (2006). “Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by agricultural waste maize bran.” Bioresource Technology, 97, 2124-2130.
10. Li, W., Zhang, L., Peng, J., Li, N., Zhang, S., and Guo, S. (2008). “Tobacco stems as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater: Equilibrium and kinetic studies.” Industrial Crops and Products, 28, 294-302.
11. Quek, S. Y., Wase, D. A. J., and Forster, C. F. (1998). “The use of sago waste for the sorption of lead and copper.” Pretoria, AFRIQUE DU SUD: Water Research Commision, 24 (3), 251-256.
12. Bulut, Y., and Baysal, Z. (2006). “Removal of Pb(II) from wastewater using wheat bran.” J. of Environmental Management, 78, 107-113.
13. Xuan, Z., Tang, Y., Li, X., Liu, Y., and Luo, F. (2006). “Study on the equilibrium, kinetics and isotherm of biosorption of lead ions onto pretreated chemically modified orange peel.” Biochemical Engineering,31, 160-164.
14. Amarasinghe, B.M.W.P.K., and Williams, R.A. (2007). “Tea waste as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Cu and Pb from wastewater.” Chemical Engineering 132, 299-309.
15. Liu, S. Y., Gao, J., Yang, Y.J., Yang, Y. C., and Ye, Z. X. (2010). “Adsorption intrinsic kinetics and isotherms of lead ions on steel slag.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 173, 558-562.
16. Vasconcelos, H.L., Camargo, T.P., Gonçalves, N.S., Neves, A., Laranjeira, M.C.M., and Fávere V.T. (2008). “Chitosan crosslinked with a metal complexing agent: Synthesis, characterization and copper(II) ions adsorption.” Reactive and Functional Polymers, 68, 572-579.
17. Gerçel, Ö., and Gerçel, H.F. (2007). “Adsorption of lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from biomass plant material of Euphorbia rigida.” Chemical Engineering, 132, 289-297.
18. Baes, C.F., and Mesmer, R.E. (1976). The hydrolysis of cations, Wiley, New York.
19. Huang, L.Z., Zeng, G.M., Huang, D.L., Li, L. F., Huang, P.M., and Xia, C.B. (2009). “Adsorption of lead(II) from aqueous solution onto Hydrilla verticillata.” Biodegradation, 20, 560-651.
20. Saeedi, M., Jamshidi, A., Abessi, O., and Bayat, J. (2009). “Removal of dissolved cadmium by adsorption onto walnut and almond shell charcoal: Comparison with Granular Activated Carbon (GAC).” J. of Water and Wastewater, 70, 16-22. (In Persian)
21. Zavvar Mousavi, S. H., and Arjmandi, A. (2009). “Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater by sheep gut.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 73, 63-68. (In Persian)
22. Shamohammadi Heidari, Z. (2010). “Lead removal from aqueous solutions using low-cost adsorbents.”
J. Water and Wastewater, 79, 45-50. (In Persian)
23. Kul, A.R., and Koyuncu, H. (2010). “Adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by native and activated bentonite: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 179,
24. Chakravarty, S., Mohanty, A., Sudha, T.N., Upadhyay, A.K., Konar, J., and Sircar, J.K. (2010). “Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using bael leaves (Aegle marmelos).” J. of Hazardous Materials, 173, 502-509.