عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
With the growing industrial and social development through time, toxic substances such as phenol and its derivatives are increasingly released into the environment from a variety of sources. The present study aims to investigate the effects of molasses on phenol removal. For this purpose, five pilot scale batch reactors (5 Erlenmeyer flasks equipped with the air and gas diffusion control system) were used in the laboratory scale. The volumes of the reactors were kept constant with a final volume content of 550 ml in each reactor. Phenol with a fixed concentration of 100 mg/l was tested under anaerobic conditions in each reactor in contact with beet molasses (organic matter used as the auxiliary substrate) with COD concentrations of 10000, 5000, 2000, 1000, and 500 mg/l over 5 retention times (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days). All the sampling and testing procedures wer e performed according to the standard methods. The results showed that in all the five experimental reactors, increasing retention time was accompanied by a continuous decline in initial phenol and COD concentrations. However, for each retention time, increasing COD concentration led to a decrease in COD removal efficiency such that increasing the initial COD concentration up to a certain level was associated with an increase in chemical oxygen demanding materials, but beyond this range, COD removal decreased slowly. It was also found that phenol removal increased with increasing retention time but it was not proportional to the concentration of the biodegradable COD. After 50 days of contact with 1000 mg/l of the supporting substrate, phenol removal in the reactors reached 98.62%. Another finding of the study was the fact that the highest phenol removal was achieved when 1000-2000 mg/l of biodegradable COD was used over 50 days of retention time
1. Akbal, F., and Nur Onar, A. (2003). “Photocatalytic degradation of phenol.” J. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 83, 295-302.
2. John, B., Sullivan, Jr., and Krieger, G.R .(2001). Clinical environmental health and toxic exposures, 2nd Ed., Lippincott Willams and Wilkins Inc., USA.
3. Eula , B.M., Barbar, C., Charles, H., and Patty, S. (2001). Toxicology, 8th Ed., John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
4. Karel , V. (2000). Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals, Vol 2, 4th Ed., John Wiley and Sons Inc., Canada.
5. Bayramoglu, G., and Arica, M.Y. (2008). “Enzymatic removal of phenol and p-chlorophenol in enzyme reactor: Horseradish peroxidase immobilized on magnetice beads.” J. Hazard Mater; 164(2-3), 148-155.
6. Busca, G., Berardinelli, S., Resini, C., and Arrighi, L. (2008). “Technologies for the removal of phenol from fluid streams: A short review of recent developments.” J. of Hazardous Materials,160, 265-288.
7. Idris, A., and Sade, K. (2002). “Degradation of phenol in wastewater using anolyte produced from electrochemical generation of brine solution.” Global Nest, 4, 139-144.
8. Pimentel, M., Oturan, N., Dezotti, M., Oturan, M. A. (2008). “Phenol degradation by advanced electrochemical oxidation process electro-Fenton using a carbon felt cathode.” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 83, 140-149.
9. Ersoz, D., Adil, S., Izzet, A., Ayca, D., and Sibel, S.R. (2004 ). “Removal of phenlic compounds with nitrophenol- imprinted polymer based and hydrogen- bonding interactions.” Separation and Purification Technology, 38, 173- 179.
10. Khosravi, R., Moussavi, G.R., and Roudbar Mohammadi, Sh. (2011). “Removal of high concentration of phenol from synthetic solutions by fusarium culmorum granules.” J. Health and Environ., 4(4), 452-459. (In Persian)
11. Wang, L., Li, Y., Yu, P., Xie, Z., Luo, Y., and Lin, Y. (2010). “Biodegradation of phenol at high concentration by a novel fungal strain Paecilomyces variotii JH6.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 183(1-3), 366-371.
12. Kehma, H., and Reed, G. (1999). Biotechnology, 2nd Ed., Vol. 11a., WIEY- VCH, Weinhem, Germany.
13. Tchobanoglous, G. (2003). Wastewater engineering, McGraw- Hill, USA.
14. Rao, J.R., and Viraraghavan, T. (2002). Biosorption of phenol from an aqueous solution by Aspergillus niger biomass.” Bioresource Technology, 85(2),165-171.
15. Almasi, A., and Dargahi, A. (2013). “The effect of different concentrations of phenol on anaerobic stabilization pond performance in treating petroleum refinery wastewater.” J. Water and Wastewater, 23(85), 61- 68. (In Persian)
16. Soltaneian, M. (1998). “A survey on the technical points and the efficiency of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket in biological treatment of oil industries wastewater [dissertation].” Ph.D. Thesis, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran. (In Persian)
17. Lee long- de Valliere, C., Petrzzi, S., Zurrer, D., Baier, V., and Dunn, I. J. (1989). “Methods of anaerobic degradation of toxic compounds in chemical and industrial wastewater.” Avshalom Mizrahi, Alan R. Liss., Biological waste treatment, 4th Ed.,New York, 35- 72.
18. Ganjidoost, H., Borghee, M., Badkobi, B., and Ayati, B. (2005). “Performance of hybrid reactors in wastewater treatment plant fiber board.” J. of Engineering Modarres, 21, 49-57.(In Persian)
19. Zhouyang, Zh., Guoqiang, J., Shengyang, J., and Fuxin, D. (2009). “Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation in an internal airlift loop reactor for phenol wastewater treatment.” Korean J. Chem. Eng., 26(6), 1662-1667.
20. Fang, H.H.P., Lianga, D.W., Zhanga, T., and Liub, Y. (2006). “Anaerobic treatment of phenol in wastewater under thermophilic condition.” Water Res., 40, 427-434.
21. Kennes, C., Mendez, R., and Lema, J.M. (1997). “Methanogenic degradation of p- cresol in batch and in continuous UASB reactors.” Water Res., 31(7), 1549-1554.
22. Zhou, G.M., and Fang, H.H.P. (1997). “Co- degradation of phenol and m-cresol in a UASB reactor.” Bioresource Technol, 61(1), 47-52.
23. Fang, H.H.P., and Zhou, G.M. (2000). “Degradation of phenol and p-cresol in reactors.” Water Sci. Technol., 42(5,6), 237-244.
24. Tay, J.H., He, Y.X., and Yan, Y.G. (2000). “Anaerobic biogranulation using phenol as the sole carbon source.” Water Environ. Res., 72(2), 189-207.
25. Tay, J.H., He, Y.X., and Yan, Y.G. (2001). “Improved anaerobic degradation of phenol with supplemental glucose.” J. Environ. Eng, 127(1), 38-45.
26. Fang, H.H.P., Liu, Y., Ke, S.Z., and Zhang, T. ( 2004). “Anaerobic degradation of phenol in wastewater at ambient temperature.” Water Sci. Tech., 49 (1), 95-102.
27. Razo-Flores, E., Iniestra-Gonzalez, M., Field, J.A., Olguin-Lora, P., and Puig-Grajales, L. (2003). “Biodegradation of mixtures of phenolic compounds in an upward-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.” J. Environ. Eng, 129(11), 999-1006.
28. APHA, AWWA, and WPCF. (2005). Standard method for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th Ed., Washington. D.C.
29. Montalvo, S.L., Borja, R., Sánchez, E., and Colmenarejo, M.F. (2010). “Effect of the influent COD concentration on the anaerobic digestion of winery wastewaters from grape-red and tropical fruit (Guava) wine production in fluidized bed reactors with chilean natural zeolite for biomass immobilization.” J of Chem. Biochem. Eng., 24 (2), 219-226.
30. Hajiabadi, H., Alavi Moghadam, S. M., and Hashemi, S. H. (2009). “The effect of organic loading rate on milk wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactor (SBR).” J. Water and Wastewater, 71, 50- 56. (In Persian)
31. Rastakhiz, N., Borghei, M., and Tajrobehka, Sh. (2008). “Design and performance of a strong load biofilter system for degrading organic load in industrial effluents on the lab scale.” J. Water and Wastewater, 65,
63- 67. (In Persian).
32. Sankar, Ch., and Swaminathan, G. (2012). “Effect of substrate concentration on biodegradation of phenol using continuous reactor.” International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT), 1(5),
33. Ahmadizad, S., Borghaei, M., and Hasani, H. (2005). “Phenol-containing industrial effluents using anaerobic fixed bed reactor and flows upward and downward using.” 8th National Conference on Environmental Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. (In Persian).
34. Shui- zhou, K.E., Zhou, S.H.J., Tong, Zh., Herbert, H., and Fang, P. (2004). “Degradation of phenol in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket(UASB) reactor at ambient temperature.” J. Environmental Sciences, 16(3), 525-528.
35. Scully, C., Collins, G., and O'Flaherty, V. (2006). “Anaerobic biological treatment of phenol at 9.5–15 ºC in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) - based bioreactor.” Water Res, 40(20), 3737-3744.
36. Hendriksen, H. V., Larsen, S., and Ahring, B. K. (1991). “Anaerobic degradation of PCP and phenol in fixed-film reactors: The influence of an additional substrate.” Water Science and Technology, 24(3-4), 431-436.
37. Sreekanth, D., Sivaramakrishna, D., Himabindu V., and Anjaneyulu Y. (2008). “Biodegradation of phenolic compounds using mixed consortia in lab scale up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.” J. of Environmental Sciences, 8, 280-291.
38. Elías, R. F., Margarita, I. G., Jim, A. F., Patricia, O. L., and Laura P. G. (2003). “Biodegradation of mixtures of phenolic compounds in an upward-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.” J. of Environmental Engineering, 129(11), 999-1006.
40. Charest, A., Bisaillon, J. G., Lépine, F., and Beaudet, R. (1999). “Removal of phenolic compounds from a petrochemical effluent with a methanogenic consortium.” Canadian J. of Microbiology, 45(3), 235-241.