عنوان مقاله [English]
2, 4-Dichlorophenol is one of the most common and abundant pollutants widely found in various industrial effluent. The obvious effect of this organic compound on health and environment depends on enhancing the degradation efficiency of this aqueous pollutant before wastewater being discharged into the receiving water. Therefore, in this study, removal of 2, 4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solution was investigated through using UV-LED/TiO2 process. In this experimental study, removal of 2, 4-DCP in the presence of TiO2 by using UV-LED in a bench scale reactor was examined. The effects of operational parameters such as pH (3-11), initial concentration of 2, 4-DCP (50-200mg/L), TiO2 concentration (0.003-0.025mol/L) and ionic strength were evaluated. The results indicated that removal of 2, 4-DCP was influenced by different operational parameters. The highest 2, 4-DCP removal rate were obtained at pH=3 by adding 0.012 mol/L of TiO2 to solution with an initial concentration of 50mg/L of 2, 4-DCP which more than 95.82% of 2, 4-DCP was removed. While UV-LED and TiO2 were used separately, the 2, 4-DCP removal efficiency was 32.11% and 36.56%, respectively. Also, the results indicated that maximum COD removal rate was 71.5% in optimum condition and also indicated lack of impact on ionic strength changes for removal of organic material. The results indicated that combined TiO2/UV-LED process in optimal conditions can be used as a new technology for treatment of various industrial wastewater containing 2, 4-DCP.
Abdelwahab, O., Amin N. & El-Ashtoukhy, E.Z., 2009, "Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163(2), 711-716.
Adewuyi, Y.G., 2001, "Sonochemistry: Environmental science and engineering applications", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 40(22), 4681-4715.
Asgari, Gh., Chavoshani, A., Seid-mohammadi, A. & Rahmani, A.R. 2013, "Removal of pentachlorophenol using microwave assisted persulfate from synthetic wastewater", Journal of Water and Wastewater, Vol. 25. No.3 (91), 1-10. (In Persian)
Asgari, G., Seid-mohammadi, A., Chavoshani, A. & Rahmani, A.R. 2013, "Microwave/H2O2 efficiency in pentachlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions", Journal of Research in Health Sciences,14(1), 36-39.
Chen, G., Guan, S., Zeng, G., Li, X., Chen, A., Shang, C., et al., 2013, "Cadmium removal and 2, 4-dichlorophenol degradation by immobilized phanerochaete chrysosporium loaded with nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles", Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 97(7), 3149-3157.
Chen, H-W., Ku, Y. & Irawan, A., 2007, "Photodecomposition of o-cresol by UV-LED/TiO2 process with controlled periodic illumination", Chemosphere, 69(2), 184-190.
Chevremont, A-C., Farnet, A-M., Sergent, M., Coulomb, B. & Boudenne J-L., 2012, "Multivariate optimization of fecal bioindicator inactivation by coupling UV-A and UV-C LEDs", Desalination, 285, 219-225.
Chiou, C-H. & Juang, R-S., 2007, "Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solutions by Pr-doped TiO2 nanoparticles", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 149(1), 1-7.
Claeys, M., Graham, B., Vas, G., Wang, W., Vermeylen, R., Pashynska, V., et al., 2004, "Formation of secondary organic aerosols through photooxidation of isoprene", Science, 303(5661), 1173-1176.
Close, J., Ip, J. & Lam, K., 2006, "Water recycling with PV-powered UV-LED disinfection", Renewable Energy, 31(11), 1657-1664.
CR Company, 1920, Handbook of chemistry and physics, Chemical Rubber Publishing,Cleveland.
Dume B., 2006, "LEDs move into the ultraviolet", Physics World, Bristol, United Kingdom<http://physicsworld com/cws/article/news/2006/may/17/leds-move-into-the-ultraviolet>(May 2006).
Eker, S. & Kargi, F., 2008, "Biological treatment of 2, 4-dichlorophenol containing synthetic wastewater using a rotating brush biofilm reactor", Bioresource Technology, 99(7), 2319-2325.
Gaya, U.I., Abdullah, A.H., Zainal, Z. & Hussein, M.Z., 2010, "Photocatalytic degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol in irradiated aqueous ZnO suspension", International Journal of Chemistry, 2(1), 180-193.
Ghauch, A. & Tuqan, A.M., 2012, "Oxidation of bisoprolol in heated persulfate/H2O systems: Kinetics and products", Chemical Engineering Journal, 183, 162-171.
Hemmati Borji, S., Nasseri, S., Nabizadeh Nodehi, R., Mahvi, A., Javadi, A. & 2011, "Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solutions by Fe (III)-doped TiO2/UV Process", Iranian Journal of Health and Environment, 3(4), 369-380.
Homem, V. & Santos, L., 2011, "Degradation and removal methods of antibiotics from aqueous matrices-a review", Journal of Environmental Management, 92(10), 2304-2347.
Hossaini, H., Moussavi, G. & Farrokhi, M., 2014, "The investigation of the LED-activated FeFNS-TiO2 nanocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of organophosphate pesticides in water", Water Research, 59, 130-144.
Kashif, N. & Ouyang, F., 2009, "Parameters effect on heterogeneous photocatalysed degradation of phenol in aqueous dispersion of TiO2", Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21(4), 527-533.
Ksibi, M., Zemzemi, A. & Boukchina, R., 2003, "Photocatalytic degradability of substituted phenols over UV irradiated TiO2", Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 159(1), 61-70.
Li, Y., Li, X., Li, Y., Qi, J., Bian, J. & Yuan, Y., 2009, "Selective removal of 2, 4-dichlorophenol from contaminated water using non-covalent imprinted microspheres", Environmental Pollution, 157(6), 1879-1885.
Litter, M .I., 2005, "Introduction to photochemical advanced oxidation processes for water treatment", Environmental Photochemistry Part II, 2(1), 325-366.
Pardeshi, S. & Patil, A., 2008, "A simple route for photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous zinc oxide suspension using solar energy", Solar Energy, 82(8), 700-705.
Portjanskaja, E. & Preis, S., 2007, "Aqueous photocatalytic oxidation of lignin: The influence of mineral admixtures", International Journal of Photoenergy, 2007, 1-7
Rahmani, A. & Enayati M. A., 2006, "Investigation of photocatalytic degradation of phenol through UV/TiO2 process", Journal of Water & Wastewater, Vol. 17 No. 2 (58), 32-37. (In Persian)
Rahmani, A., Masoumi, Z., Shabanlo, A., Akbari, S. & Almasi, H., 2015, "Investigation of sonochemical oxidation process in the presence of SiO2, CuSO4 and Na2SO4 in removal of acid Black1 Azo Dye from aqueous solution", Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences,13(12), 1115-1128. (In Persian)
Rahmani, A.R., Rezaeivahidian, H., Almasi, M., Shabanlo, A. & Almasi, H., 2015, "A comparative study on the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions by electro–fenton and electro–persulfate processes using iron electrodes", Research on Chemical Intermediates, 42(2), 1441-1450.
Safari, G., Hoseini, M., Kamali, H., Moradirad, R. & Mahvi, A., 2014, "Photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline antibiotic from aqueous solutions using UV/TiO2 and UV/H2O2/TiO2", Journal of Health, 5(3), 203-213.
Safari, G.H., Nasseri, S., Mahvi, A.H., Yaghmaeian, K., Nabizadeh, R. & Alimohammadi, M., 2015,
"Optimization of sonochemical degradation of tetracycline in aqueous solution using sono-activated persulfate process", Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 13: 76. D01 : 10.1186/540201-015-0239-7
Shao, D., Wang, X. & Fan, Q., 2009, "Photocatalytic reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) in solution containing ZnO or ZSM-5 zeolite using oxalate as model organic compound in environment", Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 117(1), 243-248.
Seid-mohammadi, A., Asgari, G. & Almasi, H., 2014, "Removal of 2,4 di-chlorophenol using persulfate activated with ultrasound from aqueous solutions", Journal of Enviromental Health Enginering Alborz University of Medical Sciences, 1(4), 259-270. (In Persian)
Seid-mohammadi, A., Asgari, G., Ebrahimi, A., SHarifi, Z. & Movahedian, A.H., 2010, "4-Chlorophenol oxidation combined with the application of advanced oxidation technology and the modified microwave in chemical and petrochemical wastewater industry", Health System Research, 6(3), 390-396.
Suja, P.D., Suguna Y., 2010, "Photocatalytic degrationof phenol in water using TiO2 and ZnO", Enviromental Biology, 31, 247-249.
Taghipour, F., 2014, "Special Features of UV-LEDs for UV Reactor Design",˂ https:// www.iuva.org˃(July 2014).
Thongkrua, S. & Ratanatamskul C., 2011, "Simultaneous removal of lignin and 2, 4-Dichlorophenol in pulp and paper mill wastewater using a supervibration-photocatalytic reactor", Modern Applied Science, 5(1), 92-100.
Wang, S-G., Liu, X-W., Zhang, H-Y., Gong, W-X., Sun, X-F. & Gao, B-Y., 2007, "Aerobic granulation for 2, dichlorophenol biodegradation in a sequencing batch reactor", Chemosphere, 69(5), 769-775.
Wang, Z.L. & Song, J., 2006, "Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays", Science, 312(5771), 242-246.
Yang, J-K. & Lee S-M., 2006, "Removal of Cr (VI) and humic acid by using TiO2 photocatalysis", Chemosphere, 63(10), 1677-84.