ارزیابی آلودگی چاه‏‏ها‏ی آب شرب شهر قم به نیترات طی سال‏های 1385-1392

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زمین‌شناسی- آبشناسی، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 استاد گروه زمین‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زمین شناسی-آبشناسی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

4 کارشناس ارشد زمین شناسی- آبشناسی، شرکت سهامی آب منطقه‌ای قم

چکیده

آب‏های زیرزمینی یگانه منبع تأمین آب برای میلیون‏‏ها‏ نفر در جهان است و آلوده شدن آنها تأثیرات عمده‏ای بر سلامت انسان‏‏ها‏، فعالیت صنایع، کشاورزی و محیط زیست دارد. آب شرب شهر قم از طرح‏‏ها‏ی انتقال آب از حوضه‏‏ها‏ی مجاور و چاه‏‏ها‏ی شرب حفر شده در محدوده شهر تأمین‏ می‏شود. کمبود منابع تأمین آب و‏‏ ‏نیاز آبی شدید در شهر باعث شده چاه‏‏ها‏ی شرب داخل شهر نقش مهمی که در گذشته در تأمین آب شرب شهر داشته اند، کماکان حفظ کنند. نیترات به‌عنوان آلاینده‌ای گسترده و متداول آب زیرزمینی از فعالیت‏‏ها‏ی انسانی و شهری منشاء‏ می‏گیرد. آلودگی ‏‏آب‏های زیرزمینی ممکن است برای سال‏‏‏ها‏‏،‏‏ غیر قابل تشخیص باشد. احیای آبخوان‏های آلوده مشکل‏‏،‏‏ پر هزینه‏‏،‏‏ و در برخی اوقات غیر ممکن است. به‌منظور ارزیابی غلظت نیترات چاه‏های آب شرب شهر قم از نتایج آنالیز 600‏‏ ‏نمونه آب‏ که توسط شرکت آب و فاضلاب قم در طی سال‏‏ها‏ی 1385 تا 1392 برداشت شده،‏ ‏استفاده شد. در این آنالیزها 136 نمونه آلوده وجود داشت. همچنین به منظور اطمینان از نتایج آزمایش‏‏ها‏ی شرکت آب و فاضلاب و تعیین محل ‏‏ها‏له آلودگی در آذر ماه 1392 از 27 حلقه چاه عمیق در محدوده شهر نمونه‌برداری و آلاینده‏‏ نیترات در آزمایشگاه معتمد اندازه‌گیری شد. در این نمونه‌برداری میانگین غلظت نیترات نمونه‏ها 74‏ ‏میلی‌گرم در لیتر و انحراف از معیار آنها 37 میلی‌گرم در لیتر به‌دست آمد و آلودگی به‌نیترات در‏ 19 نمونه (‏70 درصد ‏نمونه‏ها)‏ مشاهده شد. نتایج نشان داد که آبخوان قم در محدوده شهر قم به‌صورت گسترده به نیترات آلوده‏ می‏باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Nitrate Contaminaion of Drinking Water Wells in the City of Qom

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadhossein Rahimi 1
  • Nasrollah Kalantari 2
  • Zahra Aliyari 3
  • Reze Mohamadi Ahmadabadi 4
1 PhD Student, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz
2 Professor, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz
3 MSc in Hydrogeology, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz
4 MSc in Hydrogeology, Qom Regional Water Authority, Qom
چکیده [English]

Groundwater is the only vital source of water for millions of people around the world and its contamination has dire impacts on human health, industrial activities, agriculture, and the environment. The drinking water in the City of Qom is supplied from neighboring water basins transferred by interbasin water transimission facilities and from water wells within the city. The growing demands and the consequent increasing water scarcity have augmented and foregrounded the significant role played by the water wells in this city. Nitrate as a widespread pollutant originates from human activities and the dumped wastes that lead to the gradual degradation of groundwater resources, which might go undetected for years. On the other hand, remediation of polluted aquifers is a formidable, cost-intensive, and, at times, impossible endeavor. In this study, groundwater resources in the city of Qom were investigated in terms of their nitrate concentration. For this purpose, 600 groundwater samples collected from 2006 to 2013 by the Qom Water and Sewage Company were used, 136 of which were found to be polluted with nitrate. In order to validate the data thus obtained and to identify the contaminated areas, additional samples were collected from 27 wells in December 2013 and subjected to the relevant analysis. The latter analysis revealed a mean nitrate concentration of 74 mg/L and a standard deviation of 37 mg/L, with nitrate contamination detected in 19 wells accounting for 70% of the sampling sites. Generally, the results indicate that the aquifers within the city of Qom suffer from nitrate contamination.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Nitrate"
  • "Potable water "
  • "Groundwater pollution"
  • "Qom aquifer"
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