بررسی مدل‌های سینتیک حذف بیولوژیکی آلودگی نفتی خاک اطراف لوله‌های انتقال نفت توسط ری‌گراس

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد خاک‌شناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

4 استاد گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

چکیده

توسعه صنعتی قرن بیستم منجر به نابودی منابع موجود در محیط زیست از جمله هوا، آب و خاک شده است. در این راستا آلودگی خاک به مواد نفتی در کشورهایی که تولید کننده نفت هستند، توجه ویژه‌ای را می‌‌طلبد. پاک‌سازی محیط از آلاینده‌های نفتی بسیار پرهزینه و وقت‌گیر است. گیاه‌پالایی یا به‌عبارتی حذف بیولوژیک آلاینده‌ها، یکی از روشهای مؤثر و ارزان‌قیمت ولی زمان‌بر نسبت به سایر فناوری‌های پاک‌سازی است. در این پژوهش روند منحنی سینتیک زوال هیدروکربن‌های نفتی خاکهای آلوده خوزستان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به این منظور گیاه لولیم انتخاب و به‌منظور بررسی روند زوال درصد ترکیبات نفتی، پس از مرحله رشد رویشی با نمونه‌گیری از خاک محیط ریزوسفر هر 10 روز یک‌بار، آنالیز درصد ترکیبات نفتی نمونه‌های خاک صورت گرفت. نتایج حاصل با سه مدل سینتیک درجه صفر، سینتیک درجه اول و مدل هیگوچی مورد برازش قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از برازش داده‌های آزمایش با مدل‌های یاد شده و مقادیر ضریب تعیین، نشان داد که بهترین برازش با مدل سینتیک درجه اول با ثابت سرعت واکنش و نیمه عمر ماده آلاینده به‌ترتیب 0098/0 بر روز و 71 روز صورت گرفته است. همچنین نتایج آزمایش‌های گیاه پالایی با استفاده از گیاه لولیم 65 درصد کاهش ترکیبات نفتی خاک را طی مدت 17 هفته نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation the Kinetic Models of Biological Removal of Petroleum Contaminated Soil Around Oil Pipeline Using Ryegrass

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Ghaheri 1
  • Seyyed Saeed Eslamian 2
  • Hoda Hosseini 3
  • Jahangir Abedi Koupai 4
چکیده [English]

The industrial revolution of the past century has resulted in significant damage to environmental resources such as air, water and soil. Petroleum contamination of soil is a serious problem throughout the oil producer countries. Remediation of petroleum contamination of soils is generally a slow and expensive process. Phytoremediation is a potentially less-damaging, cost-effective, but needs longer-term for remediation of contaminated land compared to the alternative methods. In this study the kinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Khozestan were investigated. For this paper Ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plant selected and the decline of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was analyzed after growth stage, every 10 days up to 90 days. The results of TPH concentration was fitted with zero-order kinetic, first-order kinetic and Higuchi model. The result indicated that degradation of TPH with presence of plants as a function of time was well fitted with the first-order kinetic model. The first-order rate constants (K) and half-lives (T1/2) for TPH degradation were 0.0098 1/day and 71 day; respectively. The results of phytoremediation showed that there were 65% decreases in TPH concentration with Ryegrass during the 17 weeks.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phytoremediation
  • Petroleum Contaminated Soil
  • Kinetic Models
  • Ryegrass
1- Riaz, A., Batool, Z., Younas, A., and Abid, L. (2002). “Green areas source of healthy environmental for people and value addition to property.” Int. J. Agric. Biol., 4, 478-481.

2- Abedi-Koupai, J., Vossoughi-Shavari, M., Yaghmaei, S., Borghei, M., and Ezzatian, R. (2007). “The effects of microbial population on phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils using tall fescue.” Int. J. Agric. Biol., 9, 242-246.

3- Anonymous. (2001). “Salt contamination assessment and remediation guidelines.” <http://environment. gov.ab.ca/info/library/6144.pdf.> (May 2011).

4- Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). (2001). “Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in soil.” <http://www.ccme.ca/ assets/pdf /phc_ standard_ 1.0_e.pdf.> (May 2011).

5- Meagher, R. B. (2000). “Phytoremediation of toxic elemental and organic pollutants.” Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 3, 153-162.

6- Zakia, D. P., Kathrin M., and Schwab, A. (2005). “Assessment of contaminant labiality during phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon impact soil.” Environ. Pollut., 137, 187-197.

7- McNicoll, D. M., and Baweja, A. S. (1995). Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils: An innovative, environmentally friendly technology, Ottawa, Ont: Environment Canada.

8- U.S. EPA. (2000). Introduction to Phytoremediation, EPA/600/R-99/107, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC.

9- Abedi-Koupai, J., and Asadkazemi, J. (2006). “Effects of a hydrophilic polymer on the field performance of an ornamental plant (Cupressus arizonica) under reduced irrigation regimes.” J. Iran. Poly., 15, 715-725.

10- Frcik, C. M., Farrell, R. E., and Germida,  J. J., (1999). “Assessment of phytoremediation as an in-situ technique for cleaning oil-contaminated site.” Calgary, Canada, Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada.

11- Baldwin, I. L. (1992). “Modifications of the soil flora induced by application of crude petroleum.” Soil Sci., 14, 465-477.

12- Ferro, A. M., Sims, R. C., and Bugbee, B. (1994). “Hycrest crested wheatgrass accelerates the degradation of pentachlorophenol in soil.” J. Environ. Qual., 23, 272-279.

13- Reilley, K., Banks, M. K., and Schwab, A. P. (1996). “Organic chemicals in the environment: Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere.” J. Environ. Qual., 25, 212-219.

14- Kasraian, A., Karimian, N., and Pazira, E. (2012). “Effect of sulfur application on spinach phytoremedaiton process of cadmium in contaminated calcareous soils.” J. of Water and Wastewater, 82, 52-58. (In Persian)

15- Fallahi, F., Ayati, B., and Ganjidoust, H. (2012). “Lab scale study of nitrate removal by phytoremediation.”
J. of Water and Wastewater, 81, 57-65. (In Persian)

16- Pradhan, S. P., Conrad, J. R., Paterek, J. R., and Srivastava, V. J. (1998). “Potential of phytoremediation for treatment of PAHs in soil at MGP sites.” J. Soil Contam., 7, 467-480.

17- Wiltse, C. C., Rooney, W. L., Chon, Z., Schwab, A. P., and Banks, M. K. (1998). “Greenhouse evaluation of agronomic and crude oil phytoremediation potential among alfalfa genotypes.” J. Environ. Qual., 27,
167-173.

18- Wiedemeier, T.H., Rifai, H.S., Newell, C. J.,  and Wilson, J. T. (1999). Natural attenuation of fuels and chlorinated solvents in the subsurface, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.

19- Schnoor, J. L., Licht, L. A., McCutcheon, S. C., Wolf, N. L., and Carriera., L. H. (1995). “Phytoremediation of organic and nutrient contaminants.” Environ. Sci. Thecnol., 29, 318-323.

20- Schnoor, J. L. (1997). “Phytoremediation.” The University of Iowa, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research.  <http://www.gwrtac.org.
(May, 2011)

21- Xu, R., Lau, N. L. A., Ng, K. L., and Obbard, J. P. (2004). “Application of slow-release fertilizer for oil bioremediation in beach sediment.” J. Environ. Qual., 33, 1210-1216.

22- Klute, A. (1986). Methods of soil analysis: Physical and mineralogical methods, American Society of Agronomy, USA.

23- Rhoades, J. D. (1996). “Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids.” Sparks, D. L. (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 3, Chemical Methods, SSSA, Madison, WI.

24- Thomas, G. W. (1996). “Soil pH and soil acidity.” Sparks, D. L. (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis, Chemical Methods, SSSA, Madison, WI.

25- Emami, A. (1996). The methods of plant analysis, Soil and Water Research Institute, Publication No. 982, Vol. 1.

26- Christopher, S. H., Marsden, P. J., and Sharleff, A. S. (1988). Evaluation of methods 3540 (Soxhlet) and 3550 (Sonication) for evaluation of appendix IX analyses from solid samples, S-CUBED, Report for EPA Contract 68-03-33-75, Work Assignment No.03, Document No. SSS-R-88-9436.

27- Cunningham, S. D., Anderson, T. A., Schwab, A. P., and Hsu, F. C. (1996). “Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants.” Adv. Agron, 56, 55-114.

28- Gunther, T., Dornberger, U., and Frische, W. (1996). “Effect of ryegrass on biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil.” Chemosphere, 33, 203-215.

29- Medinsky, M. A., and Valentine, J. L. (2003). “Toxico-kinetics.” Klassen, C.D., and Watkins, J.B. III (Eds.), Essentials of Toxicology, McGraw-Hill, New York.

30- Venosa, A. D., Suidan, M. T., King, D., and Wrenn, B. A. (1997). “Use of hopane as a conservative biomarker for monitoring the bioremediation effectiveness of crude oil contaminating a sandy beach.” J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 18,131-139.

31- Huang, X. D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D., Glick, B. R., and Greenberg, B. M. (2004). “A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils.” Environ. Pollut., 130, 465-476.

32- Hutchinson, S. L., Banks, M. K., and Schwab, A. P. (2001). “Phytoremediation of aged petroleum sludge: Effect of inorganic fertilizer.” J. Environ. Qual., 30, 395-403.

33- Krutz, L. J., Beyrouty, C. A., Gentry, T. J., Wolf, D. C., and Reynolds, C. M. (2005). “Selective enrichment of a pyrene degrader population and enhanced pyrene degradation in Bermuda grass rhizosphere.” Biol. Fertil. Soils., 41, 359-364.

34- Gao, Y., Ling, W., and Wong, M. H. (2006). “Plant-accelerated dissipation of phenanthrene and pyrene from water in the presence of a nonionic-surfactant.” Chemosphere, 63, 1560-1567.

35- Vinas, M., Sabate, J., Espuny, M. J., and Solanas, A. M. (2005). “Bacterial community dynamics and polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbon degradation during bioremediation of heavily creosote-contaminated soil.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71, 7008-7018.