ارزیابی کارایی فرایند فنتون در حذف کروم، COD و کدورت از فاضلاب صنایع آبکاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد مرکز تحقیقات بهداشت محیط و گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان

2 عضو هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات ارتقای سلامت و دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان

3 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان

4 کارشناس شیمی کاربردی، دانشکده داروسازی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان

چکیده

استفاده وسیع از فلزات سنگین و ترکیبات آنها توسط صنایع، منجر به تخلیه مقادیر زیادی از این آلاینده‌ها به آبهای پذیرنده شده است. در صورتی که این آلاینده‌ها وارد محیط شوند باعث ایجاد مخاطرات بهداشتی می‌شوند. کروم یکی از مهم‌ترین فلزات سنگینی است که حضور آن در محیط‌های آبی نگرانی بزرگی به‌دلیل سمیّت بالا در غلظتهای پایین و قابلیت تجمع در بافتهای ارگانیسم‌ها ایجاد کرده است. هدف از این مطالعه ارزیابی کارایی فرایند فنتون در حذف کروم از فاضلاب صنایع آبکاری به‌عنوان آلاینده اصلی و مؤثر در حذف COD و کدورت بود. پژوهش از نوع توصیفی- مقطعی بوده که در بازه زمانی 3 ماهه سوم سال 89 انجام گردید. نمونه‌برداری از حوضچه متعادل‌سازی فاضلاب صنعت آبکاری واقع در شهرک صنعتی خضراء شهرستان کرمان انجام گرفت. جمع تعداد نمونه‌ها 110 بود. نمونه‌ها بعد از آماده‌سازی در شرایط مختلف (تنظیم pH در مقادیر7،5،2، افزودن H2O2 با درصد وزنی 30 درصد در غلظتهای 500، 1000، 1500، 2000، 2500 و 3000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر و Fe2+ در غلظتهای 100، 200، 400، 800، 1600 و 3200 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) در مدت زمان‌های واکنش 10، 30 و 60 دقیقه مورد آزمایش قرار گرفتند. تمام آزمایش‌ها بر اساس روشهای مندرج در کتاب روشهای استاندارد برای آزمایش آب و فاضلاب انجام گردید. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین میزان حذف کروم در pH برابر 5، نسبت بهینه H2O2/Fe2+ برابر 8000/2000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر و زمان واکنش 10 دقیقه حاصل شد که برابر با 7/99 درصد بود. بالاترین بازدهی حذف COD در pH برابر 2، نسبت بهینه H2O2/Fe2+ برابر 1600/2500 میلی‌گرم در لیتر و زمان واکنش 60 دقیقه به‌دست آمد که به‌میزان 68 درصد حاصل شد. حداکثر حذف کدورت نیز در pH برابر 7، نسبت بهینه H2O2/Fe2+ برابر 400/1500 میلی‌گرم در لیتر و زمان واکنش 10 دقیقه حاصل شد که برابر با 6/97 درصد بود. نتایج به‌دست آمده با نتایج مطالعاتی همچون تجزیه میکروسیستین LR با استفاده از فرایندهای فنتون و فتوفنتون ، قابلیت تصفیه فاضلاب آموکسیلین با ترکیب فرایندهای استخراج و اکسیداسیون فنتون و اسمز معکوس، فرایند سونوالکتروفنتون به‌عنوان یک تکنولوژی جدید برای تخرب آلاینده‌های آلی در آب، اکسیداسیون RDX و HMX توسط فنتون و کاهش COD و حذف روی از فاضلاب صنعت ابریشم مصنوعی با استفاده از ترکیبی از فرایند الکتروفنتون و ترسیب شیمیایی همخوانی دارد. با توجه به نتایج حاصل شده از پژوهش، فرایند فنتون یک فرایند مؤثر در حذف آلاینده‌هایی همچون کروم، COD و کدورت از فاضلابهای صنایع آبکاری بوده و می‌تواند جایگزین مناسبی از نظر کارایی برای سایر روشهای حذف این آلاینده‌ها از فاضلاب باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Performance Evaluation of Fenton Process to Remove Chromium, COD and Turbidity from Electroplating Industry Wastewater

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Malakootian 1
  • Hossein Jafari Mansourian 2
  • Spmayeh Mousavi 3
  • Mohammad Danesh pajooh 4
چکیده [English]

1- استاد مرکز تحقیقات بهداشت محیط و گروه مهندسی بهداشت محیط، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان (نویسنده مسئول) 3205074 (0341) m.malakootian@yahoo.com 2- عضو هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات ارتقای سلامت و دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی زاهدان 3- دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی بهداشت محیط، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان 4- کارشناس شیمی کاربردی، دانشکده داروسازی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان 1. Prof. of Environmental Health Research Center and Dept. of Environmental Health Eng., Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Corresponding Author) (+98 0341) 3205074 m.malakootian@yahoo.com 2. Faculty Member of Public Health, Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan 3. Grad. BS. of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman 4- BS. of Applied Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Extensive use of heavy metals and their compounds in industrial processes and products have lead to discharging a large amount of pollutants (e.g. Chromium) into water sources and aquatic environment. These pollutants cause a variety of human and environmental effects including health problems. There is serious concern regarding the presence of Chromium in marine environment as it causes severe toxic effects on microorganisms and ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of Fenton process in the removal of chromium from electroplating industry wastewater, as a major and effective pollutant for COD and turbidity  removal. This is a descriptive study, cross-sectional in nature, and was conducted within a period of three months in 2010.  Wastewater samples were taken from a balancing pond located in an electroplating industry in Khazra’ industrial city of Kerman. Almost 110 samples were delivered to the laboratory for analyses. Collected samples were investigated under different conditions (pH levels of 2,5,7, adding  H2O2 with 30% weight at concentrations of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 mg/L as well as Fe2 + with concentrations of 100 , 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg/L) and various reaction times of 10, 30 and 60 minutes. All experiments were based on the Standard Methods for Examination of Water & Wastewater. The highest Chromium removal (99.7%) was obtained at pH of 5.0, optimum ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ = 800/2000 mg/L and the reaction time of 10 minutes. The maximum efficiency COD removal (68%) was obtained at pH of 2.0, optimum ratio of H2O2/Fe2+= 1600/2500 mg/L and the reaction time of 60 minutes. The maximum efficiency for Turbidity removal (97.6%) was obtained at pH of 7.0, optimum ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ =400/1500 mg/L and the reaction time 10 minutes. Our findings are in line with the results of previous studies such as Degradation of microcystin-LR toxin by Fenton and Photo-Fenton processes, Feasibility study of treatment of amoxillin wastewater with a combination of extraction, Fenton oxidation and reverse osmosis , Sonoelectro-Fenton process a novel hybrid technique for the destruction of organic pollutions in water, Fenton oxidation of RDX and HMX and Reduction of COD and removal of Zn2+ from rayon industry wastewater by combined electro-Fenton treatment and chemical precipitation. According to the results of this study, the Fenton process is an effective way to remove pollutants such as chromium, COD and turbidity from the wastewater of electroplating industries, and can be replaced by other methods of pollutant removal from wastewater.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fenton Process
  • heavy metals
  • Chromium
  • Electroplating Industry Wastewater
1- Chen, Y., and Gu, G. (2005). “Preliminary studies on continuous chromium(VI) biological removal from wastewater by anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge process.” Bioresource Technology, 96(15), 1713-1721.

2- Mirbagheri, S.A., and Hosseini, S.N. (2005). “Pilot plant investigation on petrochemical wastewater treatmentfor the removal of copper and chromium with the objective of reuse.” Desalination, 171(1), 85-93.

3- Anirudhan, T.S., and Radhakrishnan, P.G. (2007). “Chromium(III) removal from water and wastewater using a carboxylate-functionalized cation exchanger prepared from a lignocellulosic residue.” J. of Colloid and Interface Science, 316(2), 268-276.

4- Fahim, N.F., Barsoum, B.N., Eid, A.E., and Kalil, M.S. (2006). “Removal of chromium(III) from tannery wastewater using activated carbon from sugar industrial waste.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 136(2), 303-309.

5- Kumar, P.A., Ray, M., and Chakraborty, S. (2007). “Hexavalent chromium removal from wastewater using aniline formaldehyde condensate coated silica gel.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 143(1-2), 24-32.

6- Chen, Y., and Gu, G. (2005). “Short-term batch studies on biological removal of chromium from synthetic wastewater using activated sludge biomass.” Bioresource Technology, 96(15), 1722-1729.

7- Mohan, D., Singh, K.P., and Singh, V.K. (2006). “Trivalent chromium removal from wastewater using low cost activated carbon derived from agricultural waste material and activated carbon fabric cloth.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 135(1-3), 280-295.

8- Kumar, P.A., Chakraborty, S., and Ray, M. (2008). “Removal and recovery of chromium from wastewater using short chain polyaniline synthesized on jute fiber.” Chemical Engineering Journal, 141(1-3), 130-140.

9- Namasivayam, C., and Sureshkumar, M.V. (2008). “Removal of chromium(VI) from water and wastewater using surfactant modified coconut coir pith as a biosorbent.” Bioresource Technology, 99(7), 2218-2225.

10- El-Sikaily, A., EL-Nemr, A., Kaled, A., and Abdel Nehab, O. (2007). “Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 148(1-2),
216-228.

11- Gao, P., Chen, X., Shen, F., and Chen, G. (2005). “Removal of chromium(VI) from wastewater by combined electrocoagulation-electroflotation without a filter.” Separation and Purification Technology, 43(2), 117-123.

12- WEF. (1999). Standard method for examination of water and wastewater, 20th Ed, American Public Health Association Publication, Washington, D.C.

13- Akbal, F., and CamcI, S. (2011). “Copper, chromium and nickel removal from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation.” Desalination, 269 (1-3), 214-222.

14- Li, H., Liu, T., Li, Z., and Deng, L. (2008). “Low-cost supports used to immobilize fungi and reliable technique for removal hexavalent chromium in wastewater.” Bioresource Technology, 99(7), 2234-2241.

15- Guan, Q., Wu, D., Lin, Y., Chen, X., Wang, X., Li, C., He, S., and Kong, H. (2009). “Application of zeolitic material synthesized from thermally treated sediment to the removal of trivalent chromium from wastewater.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 167(1-3), 244-249.

16- Jacinto, M.L.J.A.J., David, C.P.C., Perez, T.R., and De Jesus, B.R. (2009). “Comparative efficiency of algal biofilters in the removal of chromium and copper from wastewater.” Ecological Engineering, 35(5), 856-860.

17- Ahmadi, M., Vahabzadeh, F., Bonakdarpour, B., Mofarrah, E., and Mehranian, M. (2005). “Application of the central composite design and response surface methodology to the advanced treatment of olive oil processing wastewater using Fenton's peroxidation.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 123(1-3), 187-195.

18- Dantas, T.L.P., Mendonca, V.P., Jose, H.J., Rodrigues, A.E., and Moreira, R.F.P.M. (2006). “Treatment of textile wastewater by heterogeneous Fenton process using a new composite Fe2O3/carbon.” J. of Chemical Engineering, 118(1-2), 77-82.

19- da Silva, M.R.A., Trov, A.G., and Nogueira, R.F.P. (2007). “Treatment of 1,10-phenanthroline laboratory wastewater using the solar photo-Fenton process.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 146(3), 508-513.

20- Lipczynska-Kochany, E., and Kochany, J. (2008). “Effect of humic substances on the Fenton treatment of wastewater at acidic and neutral pH.” Chemosphere, 73(5), 745-750.

21- Zhang, G., Ji, S. and Xi, B. (2006). “Feasibility study of treatment of amoxillin wastewater with a combination of extraction, Fenton oxidation and reverse osmosis.” Desalination, 196(1-3), 32-42.

22- Badawy, M.I., Wahaab, R.A., and El-Kalliny, A.S. (2009). “Fenton-biological treatment processes for the removal of some pharmaceuticals from industrial wastewater.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 167(1-3), 567-574.

23- Barreto-Rodrigues, M., Silva, F.T. and Paiva, T.C.B. (2009). “Optimization of Brazilian TNT industry wastewater treatment using combined zero-valent iron and fenton processes.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 168(2-3), 1065-1069.

24- Barreto-Rodrigues, M., Silva, F.T., and Paiva, T.C.B. (2009). “Combined zero-valent iron and fenton processes for the treatment of Brazilian TNT industry wastewater.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 165(1-3), 1224-1228.

25-Bianco, B., Ida, D.M., and Vegli, F. (2011). “Fenton treatment of complex industrial wastewater: Optimization of process conditions by surface response method.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 186 (2-3), 1733-1738.

26- He, S. L., Wang, L.P., Zhang, J., and Hou, M.F. (2009). “Fenton pre-treatment of wastewater containing nitrobenzene using ORP for indicating the endpoint of reaction.” Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 1(1), 1268-1274.

27-Khoufi, S., Aloui, F., and Sayadi, S. (2006). “Treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by combined process electro-Fenton reaction and anaerobic digestion.” Water Research, 40(10), 2007-2016.

28- Pham, T.T.H., Brara, S.K., Tyagia, R.D., and Surampallib, R.Y. (2010). “Influence of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation pre-treatment on rheological characteristics of wastewater sludge.” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 17(1), 38-45.

29- Pham, T.T.H., Brara, S.K., Tyagia, R.D., and Surampalli, R.Y. (2009). “Optimization of Fenton oxidation pre-treatment for B. thuringiensis - Based production of value added products from wastewater sludge.” J. of Environmental Management, 91(8), 1657-1664.

30- Padoley, K.V., Mudliar, S.N., Banerjee, S.K., Deshmukh, S.C., and Pandey, R. A. (2011). “Fenton oxidation: A pretreatment option for improved biological treatment of pyridine and 3-cyanopyridine plant wastewater.” J. of Chemical Engineering, 166(1), 1-9.

31- Chakinala, A.G., Gogate, P.R., Burgess, A.E., and Bremner, D.H. (2008). “Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process.” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 15(1), 49-54.

32- Chakinala, A.G., Gogate, P. R., Burgess, A.E., and Bremner, D.H. (2009). “Industrial wastewater treatment using hydrodynamic cavitation and heterogeneous advanced Fenton processing.” J. of Chemical Engineering, 152(2-3), 498-502.

33- Feng, F., Xua, Z., Li, X., You, W., and Zhen, Y. (2010). “Advanced treatment of dyeing wastewater towards reuse by the combined Fenton oxidation and membrane bioreactor process.” J. of Environmental Sciences, 22(11), 1657-1665.

34- Ghosh, P., Samanta, A.N., and Ray, S. (2011). “Reduction of COD and removal of Zn2+ from rayon industry wastewater by combined electro-Fenton treatment and chemical precipitation.” Desalination, 266(1-3),
213-217.

35- Lin, S.H., and Jiang, C.D. (2003). “Fenton oxidation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatments of high-strength semiconductor wastewater.” Desalination, 154(2), 107-116.

36- Qiang, Z., Chang, J.H., and Huang, C.P. (2003). “Electrochemical regeneration of Fe2+ in Fenton oxidation processes.” Water Research, 37, 1308-1319.

37- Kyung, D.Z., and Michael, K.S. (2002). “Fenton oxidation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7- tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).” Water Research, 36, 1331-1341.

38- Liu, H., Li, X.Z., Leng, Y. J., and Wang, C. (2007). “Kinetic modeling of electro-Fenton reaction in aqueous solution.” Water Research, 41, 1161-1167.

39- Memet, A. O., Ignasi, S., Nihal, O., Stephanie, P., Jean-Luc, L., and Stephane, T. (2008). “Sonoelectro-Fenton process: A novel hybrid technique for the destruction of organic pollutions in water.” J. of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 624, 329-332.

40- Gulkaya, I., Surucu, G.A., and Dilek, F.B. (2006). “Importance of H2O2/Fe2+ ratio in Fenton's treatment of a carpet dyeing wastewater.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 136(3), 763-769.

41- Mandal, T., Dasgupta, D., Mandal, S., and Datta, S. (2010). “Treatment of leather industry wastewater by aerobic biological and Fenton oxidation process.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 180(1-3), 204-211.

42- Monahan, M., AmyTeel, L., and Watts, R. (2005). “Displacement of five metals sorbed on kaolinite during treatment with modified Fenton’s reagent.” Water Research, 39, 2955-2963.

43- JoseFarre, M.A., Domenech, X., and Peral, J. (2006). “Assessment of photo-Fenton and biological treatment coupling for Diuron and Linuron removal from water.” Water Research, 40, 2533-2540.

44- Erick, R.B., Martinez, D., Martinez, E., and Dinysiou, D.D. (2004). “Degradation of microcystin-LR toxin by Fenton and photo-fenton processes.” Toxicon, 43, 829-832.

45- Ma, X.-J. and Xia, H.-L. (2009). “Treatment of water-based printing ink wastewater by Fenton process combined with coagulation.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 162(1), 386-390.

46-Mendoza-Marin, C., Osorio, P., and Benitez, N. (2010). “Decontamination of industrial wastewater from sugarcane crops by combining solar photo-Fenton and biological treatments.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 177(1-3), 851-855.

47- Dopar, M., Kusic, H., and Koprivanac, N. (2010). “Treatment of simulated industrial wastewater by photo-Fenton process. Part I: The optimization of process parameters using design of experiments (DOE).” J. of Chemical Engineering, 173(2), 267-279.

48- Zorpas, A.A., and Costa, C.N. (2010). “Combination of fenton oxidation and composting for the treatment of the olive solid residue and the olive mile wastewater from the olive oil industry in Cyprus.” Bioresource Technology, 101(20), 7984-7987.

49-Yang, Y., Wang, P., Shi, S., and Liu, Y. (2009). “Microwave enhanced Fenton-like process for the treatment of high concentration pharmaceutical wastewater.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 168(1), 238-245.

50- Xing, Z.-P., and Sun, D.-Z. (2009). “Treatment of antibiotic fermentation wastewater by combined polyferric sulfate coagulation, Fenton and sedimentation process.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 168(2-3), 1264-1268.

51- Wang, X., Zeng, G., and Zhu, J. (2008). “Treatment of jean-wash wastewater by combined coagulation, hydrolysis/acidification and Fenton oxidation.” J. of Hazardous Materials, 153(1-2), 810-816.

52- kang, Y.W., and hwang, K.Y.(2000). “Effects of reaction conditions on the oxidation efficiency in the Fenton process.” Wat. Res., 34(10), 2786-2790.