بررسی مقایسه‌ای شاخص‌های کیفیت آب دریاچه سد شهید رجایی (استان مازندران-ساری)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار بخش اکولوژی، موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور، پژوهشکده اکولوژی دریای خزر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری

2 کارشناس ارشد آزمایشگاه پلانکتون، موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور، پژوهشکده اکولوژی دریای خزر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری

3 مربی پژوهشی بخش بیوتکنولوژی، موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور، پژوهشکده اکولوژی دریای خزر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری

4 استادیار بخش بهداشت و بیماری‌های آبزیان، موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور، پژوهشکده اکولوژی دریای خزر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری

چکیده

دریاچه‌ها و مخازن سدها برای اهداف مختلفی از جمله کنترل سیلاب، تولید انرژی، تأمین آب شرب، کشاورزی و صنعت، کشتیرانی، پرورش ماهی و تفریحات آبی مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد. لذا حفظ کیفیت آب، بهره‌برداری مناسب و پایدار سدها را امکان‌پذیر می‌سازد. براین اساس مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین و مقایسه کیفیت آب دریاچه سد شهید رجایی (مازندران- ساری) با استفاده از پارامترهای غیر زیستی (فیزیکوشیمیایی) و زیستی (کلروفیلa، شانون، ساپروپی، میکروب و قارچ) انجام شد. در این تحقیق چهار ایستگاه اندازه‌گیری کیفی آب انتخاب شد و در ماه‌های مختلف سال 1391 بررسی شد. شاخص کیفیت آب براساس هفت متغیر فیزیکوشیمیایی، شاخص تروفیکی TSI براساس مواد مغذی، شفافیت آب و کلروفیل آ و شاخص شانون و ساپروبی بررسی شد. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد حداقل سطح تروفیکی در ماه‌های شهریور و بهمن (اولیگوتروف) و حداکثر آن در ماه‌های تیر و مرداد (یوتروف) بوده است. بر اساس شاخص کیفیت آب، آب این مخزن در همه ماه‌ها در طبقه خوب قرار گرفت. کیفیت آب بر اساس شاخص شانون و ساپروبی نشان داد که آب در ماه‌های تیر و مرداد نسبت به ماه‌های دیگر دارای کیفیت پایین‌تری بوده و در حد آلودگی متوسط تا شدید قرار داشته است. همچنین میزان شمارش عوامل قارچی و میکربی در ماه‌های گرم سال (تیر و مرداد) به‌طور معنی‌داری در تمامی ایستگاه‌ها بیشتر بوده است. این مطالعه نشان داد که بررسی تعیین کیفیت آب (خصوصاً منابع آب شرب) با استفاده توأم از پارامترهای زیستی و غیر زیستی نتایج کامل‌تر و قابل اطمینان‌تری را ارائه می‌دهد. در مجموع، به‌منظور پیشگیری از وقوع پرغذایی، شکوفایی جلبکی و کنترل بار میکربی، قارچی و منابع فسفری و آلی سد، کنترل فعالیت‌های جوامع انسانی در اطراف و یا در مسیر رودخانه‌های منتهی به سد به‌خصوص در ماه‌های فصل تابستان از نکات کلیدی محسوب می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of Water Quality Indices in Shahid Rajaee Dam Reservoir (Sari, Mazandarn Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Nasrollahzadeh Saravi 1
  • Asiyeh Makhlough 2
  • Zahra Yaghoobzadeh 3
  • Maryam Ghiyasi 4
1 Assoc. Prof. of Life Sciences, National Fisheries Research Institute (IFSRI), Caspian Sea Ecology Research Center (CSERC), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Sari, Mazandararn, Iran
2 MSc Graduate of Aquatic Biology, phytoplankton Lab., Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute (IFSRI), Caspian Sea Ecology Research Center (CSERC), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Sari, Mazandararn, Iran
3 Researcher in Microbiology, Iranian Fisheries Research Institute (IFSRI), Caspian Sea Ecology Research Center (CSERC), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Sari, Mazandararn, Iran
4 Assist. Prof. of Mycology, Iranian Fisheries Research Institute (IFSRI), Caspian Sea Ecology Research Center (CSERC), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Sari, Mazandararn, Iran
چکیده [English]

Dam reservoirs are commonly used for a variety of purposes including flood control; supplying drinking, irrigation, and industrial water; marine transport; fish culture; and recreation. It is therefore, essential to safeguard water qulity in order to ensure the sustianble and economical operation of dmas. This study was conducted to identify the relevant water quality indices for Shahid Rajaee Dam Reservoir (Mazandaran-Sari) and compare them based on abiotic (some of the physico-chemical) and biotic (Chlorophyl-a, Shannon, Saproby indices, microbes, and fungi) parameters. Sampling was carried out at four stations during different months in 2012-2013. The Water Quality Index was investigated using seven physicochemical parameters; the TSI trophic index based on nutrients, water turbidity, and chlorophyll-a; and the Shannon and Saproby indices. Maximum monthly values of TSI were obtained in July and August (eutrophic status) while minimum values belonged to September and February (oligotrophic status). Based on, water quality in the reservoir was classified in the “good” category in all the study months. Water quality assessment using Shannon and Saproby indices showed that July and August had the lowest water quality (moderately to highly polluted). The maximum fungal colony and coliform counts were observed in August and September at all the sampling stations. The study revealed that more reliable and comprehensively illuminating results can be achived if, especioally in the case of drinking water supplies, water quality investigations are conducted using both biotic and abiotic parameters. Overall, it is recommended that all human activities around the dam or upstream river tributaries be controlled and checked during the warm months of the year in order to prevent eutrophication, algal blooms, microbial activities, and organic phosphorus loading.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Quality
  • Biotic and abiotic indices
  • Shahid Rajaei Dam Reservoir
  • Sari
  • Mazandaran
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