بررسی امکان جذب فلزات ‌سنگین فاضلاب صنعتی توسط شن، خاک و ماده‌‌آلی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به‌منظور مقایسه و بررسی کارایی شن، خاک (آهکی و غیر‌آهکی) و ماده‌آلی (پوسته‌ برنج و کمپوست برگ) در حذف یا کاهش فلزات سنگین مس، نیکل، روی و کروم از فاضلابهای صنعتی و بررسی اجمالی اثر متقابل آن‌ها، آزمایشی در گلخانه و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تیمار و چهار تکرار انجام گرفت. تیمارها در این آزمایش عبارت بودند: از خاک آهکی-پوسته‌ برنج، خاک آهکی-کمپوست برگ، خاک غیر‌آهکی-پوسته ‌برنج و خاک غیر‌آهکی-کمپوست برگ. برای آماده‌سازی تیمارها، لوله های پلی وینیل کلراید به ارتفاع 66/5 و قطر 10 سانتی‌متر انتخاب و با توجه به تیمارهای آزمایشی، به‌ترتیب از پایین به بالا به‌‌وسیله ریگ درشت، شن، خاک، ماده‌آلی و ریگ ریز پر شدند. سپس به مجموعه مذکور، فاضلاب صنعتی حاصل از کارخانه آبکاری به تعداد نه مرتبه (9 pore volumes) اضافه گشت؛ به این صورت که بعد از هر بار افزودن فاضلاب و خشک شدن کامل سطح فیلترها، فاضلاب مرحله بعد ریخته ‌شد. سپس در انتهای آزمایش، مقاطعی از هرکدام از جاذبها تهیه گردید و بعد از هوا خشک شدن، به‌منظور اندازه‌گیری غلظت کل فلزات‌سنگین و بررسی کارایی آنها به آزمایشگاه منتقل شد. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که قرارگرفتن خاک آهکی و غیرآهکی در زیر هر یک از مواد آلی به‌کار رفته در این مطالعه، بر توانایی آنها در جذب فلزات‌سنگین اثرگذار بوده و یافته‌های حاصل متفاوت بود. همچنین مشخص شد که ظرفیت پایین تبادل کاتیونی خاک نسبت به مواد آلی همواره باعث کاهش قدرت جذب توسط آن نمی‌گردد. آنالیز مواد آلی به‌کار رفته نیز مشخص کرد که پوسته‌ برنج برای عنصر کروم و کمپوست برگ برای عناصر روی و نیکل جاذب مناسب‌تری به‌نظر می‌رسند. علاوه بر این، شن مورد استفاده در این ازمایش نیز، توانایی جذب مناسبی را برای فلزات ‌سنگین موجود در فاضلاب‌ از خود نشان داد. درنهایت می‌توان گفت که کاربرد جاذبهای مورد مطالعه برای حذف فلزات‌ سنگین موجود در فاضلابها مؤثر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Heavy Metals Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Sand, Soil and Organic Matter

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mitra Mohammadi 1
  • Amir Fotovat 2
  • Gholamhosein Haghnia 3
1 M.Sc. of Soil Sciences, Dept. of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Prof., Dept. of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

A greenhouse experiment was conducted with a completely randomized design with four treatments and four replicates to investigate the efficiency of sand, soil (calcareous and non-calcareous), and organic matter (rice husk and leaf compost) for the removal of copper, nickel, zinc, and chromium from industrial wastewater by filtration. PVC tubes (columns) 66.5 cm high and 10 cm diameter were chosen and each was filled from bottom to top with coarse gravel, sand, soil, organic matter, and fine gravel, respectively. Then, plating wastewater was added at nine pore volumes to each column. When the filter’s surface was completely dried, a second round of wastewater addition was performed. At the end of the experiment, the columns were cut to collect the adsorptive materials which were then air-dried and transferred to the laboratory for measurement of heavy metal concentrations by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that putting calcareous and non-calcareous soils under the applied organic matter (rice husk and leaf compost) affected their capacity for adsorbing heavy metals to varying degrees. It was also found that low the cation exchange capacity of soil compared to organic matter did not lead to its reduced adsorption capacity. Analysis of the organic matter revealed that rice husk was the best adsorbent for Cr, while leaf compost was the best for Zn and Ni. In addition, applied sand in this experiment was a good adsorbent for heavy metals in wastewater. Generally, it seems that application of the studied adsorbents was effective and that they could be recommended for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Industrial Wastewater
  • heavy metals
  • Cation exchange
  • Organic Adsorbent
  • Soil and Sand

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