اندازه‌گیری بیسفنول A و نونیل‌فنول در مصب رودخانه‌های مرکزی دریای خزر و تعیین کیفیت آب با استفاده از شاخص‌های کیفی آب WQI

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه پژوهشی اکوسیستم‌های طبیعی، پژوهشکده تالاب بین‌المللی هامون، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی محیط‌زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی و محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران

چکیده

آگاهی از وضعیت کیفی رودخانه‌های ورودی به دریای خزر، می‌تواند نقش به‌سزایی در برنامه‌ریزی برای حفظ و مدیریت سلامت دریا و رودخانه‌های آن و همچنین آبزیان آنها داشته باشد. استان مازندران تعداد زیادی رودخانه‌ دارد که به دریای خزر می‌ریزند. بنابراین به‌منظور تعیین سلامت رودخانه‌های ورودی به سواحل دریای خزر از ناحیه استان مازندران، کیفیت آب 28 مصب رودخانه در امتداد سواحل این استان به کمک شاخص‌های کیفی آب بررسی شد. برای انجام کار، نمونه‌برداری از آب در مصب 28 رودخانه انجام و مقدار برخی پارامترهای فیزیکوشیمیایی شامل اکسیژن محلول، pH، کلیفرم مدفوعی، اکسیژن‌خواهی شیمیایی و اکسیژن‌خواهی بیولوژیکی، غلظت فسفات، نیترات، آمونیاک، ذرات کل محلول، ذرات کل جامد و ذرات کل آب، به‌همراه غلظت ترکیبات بیسفنول A و نونیل‌فنول سنجش شد. سپس وضعیت کیفی آب این رودخانه‌ها توسط شاخص‌های کیفی NSFWQI، IRWQISC و شاخص آلودگی Liou بررسی شد. بیشترین غلظت ترکیب BPA در مصب رودخانه‌های کاظم‌رود، تجن، عالم‌کلا، کلایه‌بن، محمودآباد، طلارود و نوشهر با دامنه 99/1 تا 94/18میلی‌گرم در لیتر و بیشترین غلظت ترکیب NP در مصب رودخانه‌های چالک‌رود، اسپی‌رود، چالوس، عالم‌کلا، فریدون‌کنار و ماشلک‌رود با دامنه‌‌ 3 تا 42/12 میلی‌گرم در لیتر اندازه‌گیری شد. بر اساس شاخص IRWQISC تعداد کمی از رودخانه‌ها در وضعیت مطلوب قرار داشتند. در حالی که تعداد زیادی از رودخانه‌ها به‌ویژه سرخرود، تنکابن، نور، محمودآباد و تجن، بر اساس شاخص‌های NSFWQI، IRWQISC و Liou، جزء رودخانه‌های آلوده دسته‌بندی شدند. وجود مناطق مسکونی و کشاورزی در اطراف رودخانه‌های استان مازندران و ورود پساب تصفیه نشده موجب کاهش کیفیت این رودخانه‌ها شده است که باید تصفیه پساب‌های صنعتی و شهری ورودی و حریم اکولوژیکی رودخانه‌ها رعایت شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Concentration of Bisphenol A and Nonylphenol and Water Quality in Caspian Sea Rivers Estuarine in Mazandaran Province by Using WQI Index

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahel Pakzad Toochaei 1
  • Ali Kazemi 2
1 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Natural Ecosystems Management, Hamoun International Wetland Research Institute, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Arak University, Arak, Iran
چکیده [English]

Monitoring the quality of rivers entering the Caspian Sea can play a key role in planning to preserve and manage the health of aquatic organisms. Mazandaran province has several rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea. Hence, the quality of 28 estuaries along the coasts of Mazandaran province were investigated in the present study using water quality indexes. Method: Water sampling from 28 estuaries was performed and physicochemical parameters were measured including dissolved oxygen, pH, fecal coliform, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, phosphate, nitrate, ammonia, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, total solids, bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Then, the water quality was evaluated through NSFWQI, IRWQISC, and Liou indexes. Ranges of 1.99-18.94 mg/L and 3-12.42 mg/L were obtained in Kazemrood, Tajan, Alamkola, Kelayebon, Mahmoodabad, Talarood and Noshahr estuaries for BAP and in Chalakrood, Espirood, Chaloos, Alamkola, Fereidonkenar and Mashalakrood estuaries for NP, respectively. Results illustrated, a few rivers have high quality according to IRWQISC index. While, with the NSFWQI, IRWQISC and Liou index classification, a high number of rivers, especially Sorkhrood, Tonekabon, Noor, Mahmoodabad and Tajan were placed in the worst quality categories. The urban and agricultural row wastewaters surrounding the Mazandaran Province Rivers are the main reasons for the decreasing water quality. Studies should be undertaken on wastewater treatment and riparian ecological rivers to improve the water quality of the mentioned rivers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Caspian Sea
  • IRWQISC
  • NSFWQI
  • Liou
  • Bisphenol A
  • Nonyl Phenol
  • Quality index
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