احصای مراکز کلیدی آسیب‌پذیر شهر همدان در برابر سیلاب با استفاده از نرم‌افزار سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی GIS و مدل‌سازی رودخانه‌ها HEC-RAS

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه مدیریت محیط‌زیست، علوم و فنون دریایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران شمال، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مدیریت محیط‌زیست، علوم و فنون دریایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران شمال، تهران، ایران

3 استاد، گروه جغرافیا علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد یادگار امام خمینی(ره)، شهر ری، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده فنی مهندسی و علوم و فنون، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران شمال، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سیلاب‌‌های شهری بر اثر تغییرات اقلیمی و رشد شهرنشینی و محدودیت در زهکشی زیرساخت‌های شهری تشدید شده‌اند. طی دهه‌های گذشته اثرات منفی زیادی از جمله آسیب‌پذیری مراکز کلیدی را برجای گذاشته‌اند. آسیب‌پذیری مراکز کلیدی شهری در حوادث و سوانح طبیعی سبب ناکارآمدی آنها، تشدید نارضایتی عمومی و عدم‌خدمات‌رسانی در حوادث می‌شود. به‌منظور تاب‌آورسازی مراکز کلیدی لازم است ابتدا مراکز مهم شناسایی شده و آسیب‌پذیری آنها در مخاطرات و تهدیدهای مختلف بررسی شوند. معیارها و زیر معیارهای سطح‌بندی و ارزیابی دارایی‌ها پس از تنظیم پرسش‌نامه و گردآوری نتایج با استفاده از وارد کردن میانگین حسابی نظرات نمونه با تکنیک AHP در نرم‌افزار Expert Choice وزن‌دهی شدند و سپس مراکز کلیدی شهر مشخص شدند. هیدرولوژی درون‌شهری و برون‌شهری و مدل‌سازی رودخانه‌های شهر همدان در دوره بازگشت‌های مختلف با استفاده از نرم‌افزار HEC_RAS بررسی شد. سپس نتایج به GIS منتقل شد و پهنه‌بندی خطر سیلاب شهر همدان مشخص شد. پس از وارد کردن میانگین حسابی نظرات نمونه در نرم‌افزار Expert Choice وزن هر شاخص به تفکیک مشخص شد که نشان می‌دهد شاخص سطح کمّی بهره‌برداری، بیشترین وزن و ارزش اقتصادی دارایی، کمترین وزن را دارد. در نهایت با انطباق مراکز کلیدی و پهنه‌های خطرپذیر سیلاب در بستر GIS مراکز آسیب‌پذیر احصا شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of Key Centers of Vulnerability in the City of Hamedan Against Floods Using GIS Software and River Modeling HEC_RAS

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bita Roohi Asl 1
  • Mahnaz MirzaEbrahimTehrani 2
  • Alireza Estelaji 3
  • Mohamad Reza Farzad Behtash 4
1 PhD Student, Dept. of Environmental Management, Marine Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Environmental Management, Marine Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
3 Prof., Dept. of Geography Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Imam Khomeini Memorial Branch, Shahr-e-Rey, Tehran, Iran
4 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Architectural Engineering-Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Urban floods have been exacerbated by climate change, urbanization, and limited drainage of urban infrastructure. Over the past decades, they had many negative effects, including the vulnerability of key centers. The vulnerability of key urban centers through man-made hazards and natural disasters causes their inefficiency, intensifies public dissatisfaction and lack of service in accidents. In order to make key centers resilient, it is necessary to identify important centers and examine their vulnerability to various hazards and threats. Criteria and sub-criteria for grading and evaluation of assets were weighted by AHP technique in Expert Choice software and then the key centers of the city were identified. Intra-Urban and extra-Urban hydrology and modeling of rivers in Hamadan in different return periods were studied by using HEC-RAS software. Next, the results were transferred to GIS and flood risk zoning of Hamadan was determined. After entering the average sample comments in Expert Choice software, the weight of each index was determined separately, which shows that the quantitative level of utilization index has the highest weight and the economic value of the asset has the lowest weight. Finally, with the adaptation of key centers and flood risk zones in GIS, vulnerable centers were identified.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • vulnerability
  • Key Centers
  • Hamedan
  • Passive Defense
  • flood
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