نوسازی و ارتقای سیستم‌های توزیع آب شهری با رویکرد بهینه‌سازی چندهدفه (مطالعه موردی: بخشی از شبکه توزیع آب شهر زاهدان)

نوع مقاله : مطالعه موردی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی عمران، دانشکده مهندسی شهید نیکبخت، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی عمران، دانشکده مهندسی شهید نیکبخت، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه مهندسی عمران ، دانشکده مهندسی شهید نیکبخت، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

فرسودگی لوله‌های سیستم‌های توزیع آب شهری از مهم‌ترین چالش‌های مدیران صنعت آب است. در صورتی که لوله‌های توزیع آب به پایان عمر مفید خود رسیده باشند و یا به‌دلیل افزایش تقاضا و تغییرات زبری، لوله‌ها دیگر کارایی نداشته باشند، باید با لوله‌های نو جایگزین شوند. محدودیت بودجه یکی از مهم‌ترین دلایل عدم‌موفقیت طرح‌های نوسازی و ارتقای سیستم‌های توزیع آب است. در رویکرد سنتی، نوسازی کل شبکه در یک فاز انجام می‌شود و رشد و توسعه سیستم لحاظ نمی‌شود و بنابراین عدم‌قطعیت‌های ناشی از تغییرات پیش‌بینی نشده، در نظر گرفته نمی‌شود. در این پژوهش، با یک رویکرد جدید با فازبندی کردن دوره‌ طرح همراه با توسعه شهری و باز طراحی بخشی از لوله‌ها در فازهای 5 ساله، بر اساس تقسیم‌بندی بودجه، به نوسازی و ارتقای بخشی از سیستم توزیع آب شهر زاهدان پرداخته شد. به‌این ‌منظور یک مدل شبیه‌سازی- بهینه‌سازی چندهدفه با توابع هدف کمینه‌سازی هزینه تعویض لوله‌ها و بیشینه‌سازی اطمینان‌‌پذیری سیستم توزیع آب، برای بهبود عملکرد هیدرولیکی شبکه توسعه داده شد. در این راستا مدل شبیه‌ساز EPANET با الگوریتم بهینه‌‌سازی گرگ خاکستری در محیط نرم‌افزار MATLAB تلفیق شد. پس از انجام بهینه‌سازی در فاز 1، نتایج به‌صورت یک جبهه پرتو بین ضریب اطمینان شبکه و هزینه بازسازی ارائه شد. یکی از پاسخ‌های بهینه موجود بر روی نمودار به‌عنوان طرح نهایی انتخاب شد. در این طرح بهینه 22 لوله با مبلغ 276 میلیون تومان و ضریب اطمینان 2/48 درصد تعویض شد. پس از اعمال تغییرات در قطر لوله‌ها بر اساس طرح فاز 1 مدل به‌عنوان مدل پایه فاز 2 بهینه‌سازی شد. در فاز 2 نیز 32 لوله انتخاب و نوسازی شد. به‌همین ترتیب پس از پایان فاز 4 مشخص شد که ضریب اطمینان شبکه به صورت چشمگیری 150 درصد افزایش داشت و فشار تمامی گره‌های شبکه در محدوه مجاز قرار داشت. بر اساس نتایج به‌دست آمده از این پژوهش می‌توان این‌گونه اظهارنظر کرد که استفاده از رویکرد به‌کار برده شده در این پژوهش در شرایط کمبود بودجه می‌تواند بسیار مؤثر باشد که علاوه بر مدیریت بودجه موجب افزایش ضریب اطمینان شبکه می‌شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Renovation and Upgrading of the Urban Water Distribution Systems by Multi-Objective Optimization Approach (Case Study: Part of Zahedan Distribution Network)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Peyman Arabi 1
  • Bahareh Pirzadeh 2
  • Jafar Jafari-Asl 3
1 Former Graduated Student, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Shahid Nikbakht Faculty of Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Shahid Nikbakht Faculty of Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
3 PhD. Student, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Shahid Nikbakht Faculty of Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Pipe wear in urban water supply networks is one of the most important challenges faced by water authorities. Older pipes must be replaced by new ones once they reach the end of their service life or are no longer useful due to a rise in demand and changes in surface roughness. Budget limits are one of the most common reasons for the failure of renovation and upgrade plans in water supply networks. In the traditional approach, the whole renovation is done in one phase and does not take into account the growth and development of the system. Therefore, uncertainties due to unforeseen changes are not considered. The present study addresses the renovation and upgrade of a part of the water supply network in Zahedan city via a novel approach. This approach involves dividing the plan into phases and redesigning some of the pipes during 5-year phases based on budget partitioning. To improve the hydraulic performance of the network, a multi-objective simulation-optimization model was developed with the pipe replacement cost and the water supply network reliability as the objective functions that must be minimized and maximized, respectively. For this purpose, the EPANET simulator model was combined with the Gray Wolf Optimization (GWO) algorithm in MATLAB software. The model execution results in each Phase were presented in the form of a Pareto front between the objective functions. This allows the company to renovate the water supply network based on the budget in each phase. After optimization in phase 1, the results were presented as a Pareto front between the network reliability coefficient and the reconstruction cost. One of the optimal answers on the chart was selected as the final design. In this optimal design, 22 pipes at a cost of 276 million Tomans and a reliability coefficient of 48.2% were replaced. After applying changes in the diameter of the pipes according to the design, the first phase was optimized as the basic model of the second phase. In phase 2, 32 pipes were selected and renovated. Similarly, after the end of Phase 4, it was found that the network reliability has increased significantly (150%) and the pressure of all network nodes was within the allowable range. The results indicate that the used approach can considerably increase the reliability of the network in addition to appropriately managing the renovation budget.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Supply Networks
  • optimization
  • Gray wolf algorithm
  • Renovation
  • Reliability
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