مشخصه‌یابی فیزیکی و شیمیایی رسوب چربی و روغن موجود در خطوط فاضلاب شهر مشهد و راه‌های جلوگیری از آن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی مرکز پژوهشی مهندسی فرایند، دانشگاه اصفهان و دانشجوی دکترای مهندسی آب و فاضلاب، دانشکده مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد مهندسی شیمی، گروه مهندسی شیمی، دانشکده فنی مهندسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

3 کارشناس مهندسی آب و فاضلاب، شرکت آب و فاضلاب مشهد

4 استادیار گروه زیست‌فناوری، دانشکده علوم و فناوری‌های نوین، دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

رسوب‌های ناشی از روغن، چربی و گریس در خطوط فاضلاب باعث سرریز فاضلاب، آسیب به محیط زیست و خطرات بهداشتی می‌شود. آنالیز دو نمونه رسوب جمع‌آوری شده از شبکه‌ فاضلاب خیابان امام رضا (ع) در شهر مشهد، نشان داد که واکنش‌های شیمیایی روغن‌های خوراکی در خطوط فاضلاب، منجر به تشکیل صابون غیر محلول و ایجاد رسوب در خطوط فاضلاب می‌شود. این رسوب‌ها به‌‌دلیل چسبندگی زیاد به مرور زمان درون لوله جمع و موجب انسداد آن می‌شود. رطوبت این نمونه‌ها 50 و 62 درصد است که نشان می‌دهد آب نقش اساسی در تشکیل آن‌ها ندارد. مقدار اسید چرب اشباع نمونه‌ها 78/61 و 35/84 درصد و اسید چرب اشباع غالب، اسید پالمیتیک است. کلسیم مهم‌ترین فلز حاضر در این نمونه‌ها است که هم از راه سختی آب و هم خوردگی لوله‌های فاضلاب ایجاد می‌شود. با توجه به نتایج به‌دست‌آمده و منشأ ایجاد این رسوب‌ها، راه‌حل‌هایی برای جلوگیری از ایجاد رسوب و انسداد خطوط فاضلاب بر اساس دستورالعمل مدیریت روغن و چربی با در نظرگرفتن شرایط محیطی و فرهنگی منطقه پیشنهاد شده است. این پیشنهادها در حال بررسی و ابلاغ برای اجرا است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Fat and Oil Deposits in Mashhad City Sewer Lines and the Solutions Developed

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi kamali 1
  • Majid Pirooz 2
  • Jalil Jalilian 3
  • Mohammadali Asadollahi 4
1 Lecturer, Institute of Process Engineering, University of Isfahan, and PhD Student of Water and Wastewater Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Tehran
2 MSc of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan
3 BS of Water and Wastewater Engineering, Mashhad Water and Wastewater Company, Mashhad
4 Ass. Prof. of Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Formation of oil, fat, and grease deposits in sewer pipelines is a major concern as they result in sewage overflow and pose health problems. Analysis of two sample deposits collected from the sewer lines of Imam Reza Street in the city of Mashhad suggested that the chemical reactions promoted by edible oils in the sewer lines lead to the formation of insoluble soap and deposits. Being sticky, the deposits accumulate over time to eventually block the lines. The analysis also showed that the moisture content of the samples ranged between 50‒62%, indicating that water does not play a main role in their formation. The samples were also found to contain 61.78% and 84.35% saturated fatty acids, with palmitic acid being the dominant one. Calcium was the main metal in the samples, which is due to both water hardness and corrosion of the sewer lines. Based on the results obtained, the origin of these deposits, and the relevant protocols for the management of oil and fat wastes, solutions were proposed to prevent deposit formation and sewer line clogging that suit the special cultural and environmental conditions of the city. These proposals are under consideration for implementation in the region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical and Chemical Characterization
  • fat
  • Oil and Grease Deposits
  • Sewer Lines Blockage Prevention
  • FOG Managements
1. Arthur, S., and Blanc, J. (2013). “Management and recovery of FOG (fats, oils and greases).” CREW Project CD2013/6. Available online at: <crew.ac.uk/publications>.(Aug. 2015)

2. Scottish Water. (2012). “Your guide to disposing cooking fats.” <<http://www.scottishwater.co.uk/assets/domestic/files/you%20>> (June 2015)

3. CRD. (2013). “Capital regional district fats, oils and grease disposal campaign.” <http://www.crd.bc.ca/wastewater/sourcecontrol/residents/fats-oils-grease.htm> (July 23, 2013)

4. Southerland, R. (2002). “Sewer fitness: Cutting the fat.” Am. City Country, 117, 27-31.

5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2003). “Why control sanitary sewer overflows? U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, D.C. <http://www.epa.gov/npdes/sso/control/index.htm>. (Feb. 3, 2007).

6. Keener, K. M., Ducoste, J. J., and Holt, L. M. (2008). “Properties influencing fat, oil, and grease deposit formation.” Water Environment Research, 80(12), 2241-2246.

7. Lasmin, M., Dean, L. O., Lappi S. E., and Ducoste J. J. (2014). “Factors that influence properties of FOG deposits and their formation in sewer collection systems.” Water Research, 49, 92-102.

8. Williams, J. B., Clarkson, C., Mant, C., Drinkwater, A., and May, E. (2012). “Fat, oil and grease deposits in sewers: Characterisation of deposits and formation mechanisms.” Water Research, 46(19), 6319-6328.

9. Dominic, C. C. S., Szakasits, M., and Ducoste, J. (2012). “Understanding the spatial formation and accumulation of fats, oils and grease deposits in the sewer collection system.” Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 6, 7989-7994.

10. He, X., Francis, L., Leming, M. L., Dean, L. O., Lappi, S. E., and Ducoste, J. J. (2013). “Mechanisms of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation in sewer lines.” Water Research, 47(13), 4451-4459.

11. Gunstone, F. (2009). Oils and fats in the food industry, John Wiley and Sons, USA.

12. Gardner, W.H. (1986). Water content, in methods of soil analysis Part 1. Physical and mineralogical Methods, Agronomy Monograph No. 9, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA, p. 493-509.

13. Clesceri, L. S., Greenberg, A. E., and Eaton, A. D. (1998). Stndard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th Ed., American Public Health Association, Washington DC.

14. Clarkson, C. (2014). “Fat, oil and grease deposits in sewers: Characterisation of deposits and formation mechanisms.” Doctoral Dissertation, University of Portsmouth, UK.

15. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. (1996). Animal and vegetable fats and oils- analysis by gas chromatograohy of methyl esters of fatty acids, ISIRI number 4091, Tehran. (In Persian)

16. Brittain, H.G., and Bruce, R.D. (2006). “Thermal analysis.” Ahuja, S., Jespersen, N. (Eds.). Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, 47, 63-109

17. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran.( 2007). Foods -determination of lead, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc - atomic absorption spectrophotometry, ISIRI number 9266, Tehran. (In Persian)

18. AOAC International. (2005). 35 Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, AOAC 985., Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, AOAC International.

19. Kabouris, J.C., Tezel, U., Pavlostathis, S.G., Englemann, M., Dulaney, J.A., Todd, A.C., and Gillette, R.A. (2009). “Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge and fat, oil, and grease.” Water Environ. Res., 81 (5), 476-485.

20. Kabouris, J.C., Tezel, U., Pavlostathis, S.G., Englemann, M., Dulaney, J., Gillette, R.A., and Todd, A.C. (2009). “Methane recovery from the anaerobic codigestion of municipal sludge and FOG.” Bioresour. Technol., 100 (15), 3701-3705.

21. Suto, P., Gray, D.M.D., Larsen, E., and Hake, J. (2006). “Innovative anaerobic digestion investigation of fats, oils, and grease.” Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 2, 858-879.

22. Canakci, M. (2007). “The potential of restaurant waste lipids as biodiesel feedstocks.” Bioresour. Technol., 98 (1), 183-190.

23. Gunstone, F. (2009). The chemistry of oils and fats. Sources, composition, properties and uses, John wiley and Sons, USA.

24. Fründ, H. C., and Schoenen, D. (2009). “Quantification of adipocere degradation with and without access to oxygen and to the living soil.” Forensic Science International, 188(1), 18-22.

26. Shin, H., Han, S., and Hwang, H. (2014). “Analysis of the characteristics of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits in sewerage systems in the case of Korea.” Desalination and Water Treatment, 54 (4-5), 1318-1326.

27. He, X., Iasmin, M., Dean, L.O., Lappi, S.E., Ducoste, J.J., and Reyes, de F.L. los. (2011). “Evidence for fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposit formation mechanisms in sewer lines.” Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 4385-4391.

25. Gutiérrez-Padilla, M. G. D., Bielefeldt, A., Ovtchinnikov, S., Hernandez, M., and Silverstein, J. (2010). “Biogenic sulfuric acid attack on different types of commercially produced concrete sewer pipes.” Cement and Concrete Research, 40(2), 293-301.

28. Bockisch, M. (1998). Fats and oils handbook, AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois, USA.

29. Bettelheim, F., Brown, W., Campbell, M., Farrell, S., and Torres, O. (2012). Introduction to organic and biochemistry, Cengage Learning, N.Y.

30. Marchetti, J. M., Miguel, V. U., and Errazu, A. F. (2007). “Heterogeneous esterification of oil with high amount of free fatty acids.” Fuel, 86(5), 906-910.

31. National Restaurant Association. (2006). “Fats, oils and grease control. program tool kit.” <http://www.ci.rockford.il.us/media/Restaurant%20Grease%20Brochure.pdf>. (Dec. 2015)