کاربرد تغذیه سطحی آبخوان در اصلاح روش GALDIT برای ارزیابی خطر پیشروی آب شور در آبخوان قم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه عمران، دانشکده مهندسی عمران و معماری، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 استاد، گروه عمران، دانشکده مهندسی عمران و معماری، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه عمران، دانشکده مهندسی عمران و معماری، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

درک واقع‌بینانه آسیب‌پذیری آبخوان نسبت به پیشروی آب شور یکی از پیش‌نیازهای مهم مدیریت آبخوان‌های ساحلی است. روش GALDIT ابزار مناسبی است که علی‌رغم درنظر گرفتن خصوصیات کیفی، هیدروژئولوژیکی و زمین‌شناسی آبخوان، نقش تغذیه سطحی آبخوان را درنظر نگرفته است. محدوده مطالعاتی قم-کهک بخشی از حوضه آبریز دریاچه نمک است که در بخش خشک و بیابانی ایران مرکزی قرار گرفته است. به‌علت کمبود منابع آب‌های سطحی و زیرزمینی منطقه، بخشی از نیازهای شرب و صنعت شهر قم از آب‌های خارج از این محدوده مطالعاتی تأمین می‌شود. در این پژوهش با افزودن پارامتر تغذیه سطحی آبخوان، روش GALDITR معرفی شد و آسیب‌پذیری آبخوان ساحلی قم به پیشروی آب شور دریاچه نمک ارزیابی شد. سپس با توجه به ویژگی‌های آبخوان مورد بررسی از روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی برای بازبینی وزن پارامترهای مدل GALDITR استفاده شد. بر اساس نتایج به‌دست آمده، رتبه زیاد پارامتر تغذیه سطحی آبخوان در بخش وسیعی از آبخوان، منجر به افزایش وسعت ناحیه با آسیب‌پذیری متوسط مدل GALDITR نسبت به روش GALDIT شد. در مدل GALDITR-AHP، پارامترهای فاصله از خط ساحلی، تراز سطح آب زیرزمینی نسبت به سطح دریاچه و تأثیر آب شور پیشروی کرده به‌ترتیب وزن بیشتری از سایر پارامترها گرفتند. با افزایش وسعت ناحیه با آسیب‌پذیری کم در مدل GALDITR-AHP، آسیب‌پذیری آبخوان در حوالی شهر قم به پیشروی آب شور کاهش یافت. شاخص آسیب‌پذیری مدل‌هایGALDITR-AHP، GALDITR و GALDIT به‌ترتیب بیشترین هم‌بستگی را با مقدار کلر در نقاط مشاهده‌ای نشان دادند. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که نواحی با آسیب‌پذیری زیاد و متوسط در بخش شرقی آبخوان قم با وسعت حدود 14 درصد از کل مساحت آبخوان مستعد پیشروی آب شور بوده و می‌توانند به‌عنوان محدوده گسترش آب شور برای پایش و مدیریت بهینه آبخوان ساحلی درنظر گرفته شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Aquifer Surface Recharge in the Modification of GALDIT Method to Assess the Risk of Seawater Intrusion in Qom Aquifer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Faal 1
  • Hamid Reza Ghafouri 2
  • Seyed Mohammad Ashrafi 3
1 PhD. Student, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 . Prof., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

A realistic understanding of aquifer vulnerability to seawater intrusion is one of the important prerequisites for coastal aquifer management. The GALDIT method is a proper tool that, despite considering the qualitative, hydrogeological, and geological characteristics of the aquifer, has not considered the role of aquifer surface recharge. The Qom-Kahak study area is a part of the salt lake catchment, which is located in the arid and desert part of central Iran. Due to the shortage of surface and groundwater resources in the region, some of the drinking and industrial needs of Qom city are met from water outside the study area. This study, by adding the aquifer surface recharge parameter introduces the GALDITR model to evaluate the Qom aquifer vulnerability to saltwater intrusion from the Salt Lake. Then, the analytical hierarchy process method is used to review the weight of GALDITR model parameters according to the characteristics of the studied aquifer. Based on the obtained results, the high rank of the aquifer surface recharge parameter in a large part of the aquifer led to an increase in the area of moderate vulnerability of the GALDITR model compared to the GALDIT method. In the GALDITR-AHP model, the parameters of distance from the shore, groundwater level above the lake, and the impact of seawater intrusion gained more weight than other parameters, respectively. With increasing the low vulnerability area in the GALDITR-AHP model, the aquifer vulnerability near Qom city decreased. The vulnerability index of GALDITR-AHP, GALDITR, and GALDIT models showed the highest correlation with chloride ion values at observation points, respectively. The results showed that areas with high and moderate vulnerability in the eastern part of Qom aquifer covering about 14 % of the total aquifer area are more prepared for seawater intrusion and can be considered as the expansion of seawater wedge for monitoring and optimal management of coastal aquifer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Saltwater intrusion
  • Vulnerability Mapping
  • GALDIT
  • Aquifer Surface Recharge
  • AHP
  • Qom Aquifer
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