بررسی شیوع ژن‌های qnr در انتروباکتریاسه‌های جداسازی شده در فاضلاب شهری و بیمارستانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه میکروبیولوژی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج، کرج، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه میکروبیولوژی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه حفاظت محیط‌زیست، پژوهشگاه صنعت نفت، تهران، ایران

چکیده

امروزه مقاومت به آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها در باکتری‌ها به‌دلیل استفاده نادرست رو به افزایش است که این امر برای درمان بیماری‌ها یک تهدید به‌حساب می‌آید. فاضلاب‌های بیمارستانی، پتانسیل زیادی برای ورود باکتری‌ها و ژن‌های مقاوم به محیط‌زیست دارند. همچنین سیستم‌های تصفیه کنونی نیز کارایی زیادی در حذف و یا کاهش آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها ندارند که این امر باعث افزایش باکتری‌ها با ژن‌های مقاومت به آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها در محیط می‌شود. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی شیوع ژن‌های پلاسمیدی qnr در جدایه‌های انتروباکتریاسه مقاوم به کوئینولون از فاضلاب‌های شهری و بیمارستانی شهر کرج بود. تعداد 99 جدایه انتروباکتریاسه از پساب بیمارستانی و شهری استان البرز در بهار 1398 جداسازی شدند. آزمون‌های بیوشیمیایی به‌منظور شناسایی آنها انجام شد و جدایه‌ها از نظر الگوی مقاومت به آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های سیپروفلوکساسین، لووفلوکساسین، افلوکساسین، نورفلوکساسین و نالیدیکسیک اسید به روش کربی‌ بایر بررسی و جدایه‌هایی که بیشترین مقاومت به کوئینولون‌ها را داشتند. برای حضور ژن‌های qnr A، qnr B و qnr S به روش PCR بررسی شدند. در میان ارگانیسم‌های کشت شده اشریشیاکلی شایع‌ترین ارگانیسم بود و بعد از آن اشریشیاکلی (غیر فعال) و سیتروباکتر فروندی قرار داشتند. بیشترین مقاومت در بین جدایه‌ها به آنتی‌بیوتیک نالیدیکسیک اسید مشاهده شد. بیشتر جدایه‌ها حاوی ژن qnr A (61 درصد) بودند. ژن‌های qnr B و qnr S به‌ترتیب در 31 درصد و 8 درصد از جدایه‌ها یافت شد. یک جدایه حاوی هر دو ژن qnr B و qnr A بود. بیشترین جدایه‌های حاوی ژن qnr A از پساب بیمارستانی و بیشترین جدایه‌های حاوی ژن qnr B از پساب شهری جداسازی شدند. مقاومت آنتی‌بیوتیکی امروزه باید به‌عنوان یک آلودگی زیست‌محیطی در نظر گرفته شود و کیفیت تصفیه فاضلاب در کاهش این عوامل باید ارزیابی شود. همچنین مصرف خودسرانه آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ نیز باید متوقف شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Frequency Assay of qnr Genes in Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Hospital and Urban Wastewaters in Karaj City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shirin Rezakhani 1
  • Azam Haddadi 2
  • Mahmoud Shavandi 3
1 MSc. Graduate Student, Dept. of Microbiology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Dept. of Microbiology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Ecology and Environmental Pollution Control Research Group, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In recent years, because of excessive and unregulated use of antibiotics, the threat of acquisition of antibiotic resistance by pathogens is growing. Hospitals are hotspots for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) and will be ejected from hospitals via wastewater systems. The aim of this study was the frequency assay of qnr plasmid’s genes in quinolone resistant Entrobacteriaceae strains isolated from urban and hospital wastewaters. A total of 99 Entrobacteriaceae strains were isolated from urban and hospital wastewater in Alborz province during the spring of 2019. Bacterial strains were identified by standard microbiological and biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility test to ciprofloxain, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacine and nalidxic acid was determined by Kirby-Bauer method and the frequency of quinolone resistance genes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS) was investigated by PCR. Among the organisms cultured, Escherichia coli was the most common organism followed by Escherichia coli (inactive) and Citrobacter freundii. The most antibiotic resistance was observed against nalidixic acid.  Most of the isolates (61%) harboured the qnrA gene. qnrB and qnrS genes were found in 31% and 8% of isolates respectively. One isolate has both qnrA and qnrB genes. Most of the strains that contain qnrA and qnrB genes were isolated from hospital and urban wastewater respectively. Antimicrobial resistance should now be seen as an environmental pollutant and new wastewater treatment processes must be assessed for their capability in eliminating antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, especially from hospital effluents. Also, unregulated use of antibiotics should be stopped.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • quinolones
  • Qnr Genes
  • hospital wastewater
  • Antibiotic Resistance
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