بررسی آلودگی رودخانه گوهررود به باکتری‌های مقاوم به آنتی‌بیوتیک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فارغ‌التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

فاضلاب‌های شهری و پساب‌های کشاورزی مهم‌ترین منبع آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها و ریزجانداران مقاوم به آنها هستند و رودخانه‌ها به‌عنوان محل ورود اینها از مهم‌ترین مسیرهای پخش این آلودگی‌ها به‌شمار می‌روند. هدف این پژوهش بررسی تغییرات جمعیت باکتری‌های مقاوم به آنتی‌‌بیوتیک‌های مختلف در رودخانه گوهررود بود. از آب و رسوب کف رودخانه در سه نقطه در طول رودخانه با تمرکز بر شهر رشت و در پاییز و زمستان 1395 و بهار و تابستان 1396 نمونه‌برداری شد. تعداد باکتری‌های هتروتروف و کلیفرم در محیط کشت‌های نوترینت آگار و ائوزین متیلن‌بلو آگار دارای µg/mL 100 از آنتی‌بیوتیک‌های سفالکسین، جنتامایسین، داکسی‌سایکلین، سیپروفلوکساسین و تری‌متوپریم، به‌روش پلیت کانت شمارش شدند. از ویژگی‌های شیمیایی آب نیز pH و EC اندازه‌گیری شدند. داده‌های مربوط به تعداد باکتری‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SAS به روش اندازه‌های تکرار شده با آرایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی آنالیز شدند. با عبور رودخانه از شهر، pH و EC آب افزایش یافت. میانگین EC در فصل بهار و تابستان بیش از 5/2 برابر میانگین آن در فصل پاییز و زمستان بود. تعداد باکتری‌های هتروتروف و کلیفرم آب و رسوب با عبور رودخانه از شهر افزایش یافت. میانگین تعداد هتروتروف‌ها و کلیفرم‌های مقاوم به آنتی‌بیوتیک در آب به‌ترتیبLogCFU/mL74/3 و 79/2 و میانگین تعداد هتروتروف‌ها و کلیفرم‌های مقاوم به آنتی‌بیوتیک در رسوب به‌ترتیب
LogCFU/g 74/5 و 37/5 بود. روند مقاومت باکتری‌های هتروتروف و کلیفرم آب و رسوب در برابر آنتی‌بیوتیک‌ها به‌صورت سفالکسین< جنتامایسین< سیپروفلوکساسین< داکسی سایکلین< تری‌متوپریم بود. روند میانگین تعداد کلیفرم‌های آب و رسوب و تعداد باکتری‌های هتروتروف رسوب در فصول مختلف به‌صورت زمستان<پاییز<تابستان< بهار بود. با توجه به یافته‌های این پژوهش آب رودخانه گوهررود آلوده به باکتری‌های مقاوم به آنتی‌بیوتیک و به‌ویژه باکتری‌های مقاوم به سفالکسین بوده و اگر از آب رودخانه در آبزی‌پروری و آبیاری کشت‌زارهای پایین‌دست در کشاورزی استفاده شود، ممکن است باکتری‌های مقاوم به آنتی‌بیوتیک و ژن‌های مقاومت در آنها در اکوسیستم‌های دیگر پخش شده و وارد زنجیره غذایی انسان شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Gowharrood River Contamination to Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Saberinia 1
  • Mohammad Bagher Farhangi 2
  • Nafiseh Yaghmaeian Mahabadi 2
  • Nasrin Ghorbanzadeh 2
1 Former Gratuated Student, Soil Science and Engineering Dept., Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Soil Science and Engineering Dept., Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Wastewaters and agricultural effluents are among the main sources of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Rivers as the sink for the effluents may distribute this kind of contamination in the environment. This study aimed to investigate the variation of antibiotic resistant bacteria density in Gowharrood River. The water and sediment samples were taken at three points along the river (focused on river course in Rasht city), in autumn 2016 and in winter, spring and summer 2017. The number of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria were counted in the Nutrient agar and Eosine-Methylene Blue agar media containing 100 µg/mL of cephalexin, gentamicin, doxycyclin, ciprofloxacin, and trimetoprim antibiotics, respectively. pH and EC were also measured in water samples. Data for bacteria number were analyzed by repeated measures of factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design by SAS software package. As the river passes through the city, pH and EC of water increase. The average EC value of river water in spring and summer seasons was more than 2.5 times its value in autumn and winter seasons. The number of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in both water body and sediment increased as the river passed throutgh the city. The average density of antibiotic resistant heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in the river water was 3.74 and 2.79 (Log CFU/mL) respectively, and the average density of antibiotic resistant heterotrophic and and coliform bacteria in sediment samples was 5.74 and 5.37 (Log CFU/g) respectively. Resistance pattern of both heterotrophic and coliform bacteria to antibiotics in both sediment and water samples was as follows: cephalexin> gentamicin> ciprofloxacin> doxycyclin> trimetoprim. Seasonal variation patterns for river water and sediment coliforms and sediment heterotrophic bacteria were as follows: winter>autumn>summer>spring. According to the results of this study, Gowharrood river is contaminated with antibiotic resistant, especially cephalexin resistant, bacteria and if the water of this river is used in aquaculture and irrigation of downstream agriculture fields, the antibiotic resistant bacteria and their antibiotic resistance genes may be spread in the other ecosystems and finally may enter the human food chain.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heterotrophic bacteria
  • Cephalexin
  • Coliforms
  • Electrical conductivity
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